Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing: Nondestructive Creation

دانلود کتاب Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing: Nondestructive Creation

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کتاب تولید مواد فعال دارویی: ایجاد غیر مخرب نسخه زبان اصلی

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing: Nondestructive Creation

نام کتاب : Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing: Nondestructive Creation
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : تولید مواد فعال دارویی: ایجاد غیر مخرب
سری : De Gruyter STEM
نویسندگان :
ناشر : Walter de Gruyter
سال نشر : 2022
تعداد صفحات : 332
ISBN (شابک) : 9783110702828
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 5 مگابایت



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Cover
Half Title
Also of Interest
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Manufacturing: Nondestructive Creation
Copyright
Dedication
Preface
Contents
1. History of pharmaceuticals
1.1 History of pharmaceuticals: their evolution
1.1.1 Beginning
1.1.2 GlaxoSmithKline
1.1.3 Merck and Merck KGaA
1.1.3.1 Merck
1.1.4 Pfizer
1.1.5 Warner Lambert
1.1.6 Parke, Davis
1.1.7 Upjohn
1.1.8 Bayer AG
1.1.9 Eli Lilly
1.1.10 Abbott
1.1.11 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) and AstraZeneca
1.1.12 Bristol Myers Squibb
1.1.13 E. R. Squibb
1.1.14 Novartis, Ciba Geigy, Sandoz
1.1.14.1 Ciba
1.1.14.2 Geigy
1.1.14.3 Sandoz
1.1.14.4 Novartis
1.1.15 Roche
1.1.16 Johnson & Johnson
1.1.17 Boots
1.1.18 Boehringer Ingelheim
1.1.19 Sanofi
1.1.20 Aventis
1.1.21 Novo-Nordisk
1.1.21.1 Novo Industri A/S
1.1.21.2 Nordisk Gentofte A/S
1.1.22 Other companies
1.2 Second half of twentieth century and generic pharma companies
1.3 IG Farben’s contribution
1.3.1 Sontochin
1.3.1.1 Preparation of sontochin, resochin, and brachysan
1.3.2 Salicylic acid
1.3.2.1 Introduction
Abbreviations
Bibliography
2. Business model: brand versus generics, product demand, process selection, and economics
2.1 What is a drug?
2.2 Brand and generic drugs
2.2.1 Brand drugs
2.2.2 Brand drug development process
2.2.2.1 Step 1: discovery and development
2.2.2.2 Step 2: preclinical research
2.2.2.3 Step 3: clinical research
2.2.2.4 Step 4: FDA drug review
2.2.2.5 Step 5: FDA post-market drug safety monitoring
2.2.3 Manufacturer inspections
2.2.4 Generic drugs
2.2.5 Process selection
2.2.5.1 Batch process
2.2.5.2 Continuous process
2.2.5.3 Batch versus continuous process in pharmaceuticals
2.3 Review of brand and generic drug API production
2.4 Review of formulations
2.5 Manufacturing process technologies and their impact on profitability
2.6 Pharma’s business model
References
3. Physical and chemical properties
3.1 Molecular weight
3.2 Physical state
3.3 Liquid
3.4 Solid
3.5 Gas
3.6 Material handling
3.6.1 Gas as a raw material
3.6.2 Solids as a raw material
3.6.2.1 Solid feed for batch processes
3.6.3 Liquid as a raw material and as a solvent
3.6.4 Density
3.6.5 Viscosity
3.6.6 Solubility
3.6.7 Specific heat
3.6.8 Azeotrope behavior
3.6.9 Heat of formation/reaction
3.6.10 Flammability
3.7 Exploitation of chemical and physical properties
3.7.1 Exploitation of solvents
3.7.2 Solubility and solubility differences
3.7.3 Density differences (phase separation)
3.7.4 Exotherm/heat of reaction
3.7.5 Melting point
3.8 Toxicity
References
4. Pharma chemistry/chemical development
4.1 Examples of organic excipients
4.1.1 Saccharin
4.1.2 Butylated hydroxy toluene
4.2 Chemical synthesis product/processes/development
4.2.1 Mycophenolate mofetil
4.2.2 Nevirapine
4.2.3 Chlorosulfonylation reaction
4.2.4 8-Hydroxyquinoline
4.3 Green process development
4.3.1 Unit processes and unit operations
4.3.2 Mass balance
4.3.3 Solvent selection
4.3.4 Stoichiometry
Abbreviations
References
5. Manufacturing process development and case studies
5.1 Commercialization of APIs
5.2 Considerations for scale-up
5.2.1 Role of process equipment and mutual interaction of chemicals in pharmaceuticals
5.2.2 Role of process equipment
5.2.3 Stoichiometry, mutual interaction of chemicals, and reaction mechanism
5.3 Dimethyl fumarate
5.4 Hydrochlorothiazide
5.5 Benchmarking of chemistries
5.5.1 USP 7109203
5.5.2 USP 4464537
5.6 Metformin hydrochloride
5.7 Omeprazole
5.8 Metoprolol
5.9 Modafinil
5.10 Levothyroxine
5.11 Status of the current manufacturing technologies
5.12 Innovation opportunities for API manufacturing
5.13 Nondestructive creation [118, 119] in API manufacturing
5.14 Modular plants
5.14.1 Process design considerations
5.14.1.1 Solvent use/selection
5.14.1.2 Reaction mechanism and order of addition
5.14.2 Dimethyl fumarate
5.14.3 Metformin hydrochloride
5.14.4 Omeprazole
5.14.5 Metoprolol
5.14.6 Modafinil
5.15 Future of technology innovation in API manufacturing
Abbreviations
References
6. Active pharmaceutical ingredients (API): innovation, design considerations, and waste reduction
6.1 Why low yield and waste happen
6.2 Sources of pharma’s waste
6.3 Can pharma’s yields and solvent use be improved to achieve net zero emissions?
6.4 Why has the pharma lagged in manufacturing technology innovation?
6.5 Process steps: laboratory to commercialization
6.5.1 Laboratory development
6.5.2 Scale-up considerations
6.5.3 Equipment options
6.6 API examples
6.6.1 Metoprolol
6.6.1.1 USP 6252113 [47] example
6.6.1.2 US 2009/0247642 A1 [48] example
6.6.1.3 Simplified metoprolol process
6.6.2 Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
6.6.3 Dimethyl fumarate
6.6.4 Omeprazole
6.6.5 Modafinil
6.7 Pharma’s continuous improvement process and why it has lagged
Abbreviations
References
7. Process documentation and operating strategies
7.1 Operating strategies and process documentation
7.1.1 Operating strategies
7.1.2 Process documentation
7.2 Section 1: process and its description
7.2.1 Omeprazole
7.2.1.1 Batch process
7.2.1.2 Continuous process
7.2.2 Metformin hydrochloride
7.2.2.1 Batch/continuous process
7.3 Section 2: process charge and recovery
7.4 Section 3: raw material specifications/properties
7.4.1 4-(2-Methoxyethyl)phenol
7.4.2 Epichlorohydrin
7.4.3 Sodium hydroxide
7.4.4 Ammonia
7.4.5 Methanol
7.4.6 Maleic anhydride
7.4.7 Thiourea
7.4.8 Toluene
7.4.9 Xylene
7.4.10 Dimethyl amine
7.4.11 Ammonia
7.4.12 Hydrochloric acid
7.5 Section 4: process chemistry and heat balance
7.5.1 Process chemistry
7.5.2 Heat and mass balance
7.6 Section 5: process equipment
7.7 Section 6: process conditions and effect of variables
7.7.1 Liquid/solid feeds
7.7.2 Batch process
7.7.3 Continuous process
7.8 Section 7: suggested operating conditions
7.9 Section 8: laboratory synthesis procedure
7.10 Section 9: analytical methods
7.11 Section 10: thermodynamic and physical properties
7.11.1 Heat of reaction
7.11.2 Physical properties
7.11.2.1 Dimethyl sulfate: (CH3)2SO4
7.11.2.2 Sodium hydroxide: NaOH (solid)
7.11.2.3 Sulfuric acid: H2SO4 (96%)
7.12 Section 11: final product specifications
7.13 Section 12: cleaning and cGMP practices
7.13.1 Cleaning
7.13.2 cGMP
7.14 Section 13: safety, MSDS (now called SDS), and material handling
7.15 14: US Pharmacopeia standards
References
8. Road Map
8.1 Why manufacturing technology innovation has lacked in API manufacturing?
8.2 Why and how the current API manufacturing scenario developed?
8.3 Cost of drugs
8.4 Review of the laboratory process
8.5 Why innovation is needed in pharma?
8.6 Transformational innovation/creative destruction
8.7 Nondestructive creation
8.8 Why excess solvent is used?
8.9 Continuous processing
8.10 Equipment
8.11 Regulations and technology
References
Index




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