دانلود کتاب Environment

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Environment

نام کتاب : Environment
ویرایش : 9
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : محیط
سری :
نویسندگان : , , , ,
ناشر : Wiley
سال نشر : 2015
تعداد صفحات : 543
ISBN (شابک) : 9781118875827 , 1118978447
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 43 مگابایت

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Front Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
About the Authors
CONTENTS (with direct page links)
1. Introducing Environmental Science and Sustainability
Human Impacts on the Environment
Increasing Human Numbers
Development, Environment, and Sustainability
Population, Resources, and the Environment
Types of Resources
Resource Consumption
Ecological Footprint
The IPAT Model
Sustainability and The Tragedy of the Commons
Global Plans for Sustainable Development
Environmental Science
Earth Systems and Environmental Science
Science as a Process
Addressing Environmental Problems
Addressing Environmental Problems
CASE IN POINT Lake Washington
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
2. Environmental Laws, Economics, and Ethics
A Brief Environmental History of the United States
Protecting Forests
Establishing and Protecting National Parks and Monuments
Conservation in the Mid-Twentieth Century
The Environmental Movement of the Late Twentieth Century
U.S. Environmental Legislation
Environmental Policy Since 1970
Economics and the Environment
Strategies for Pollution Control
Critiques of Environmental Economics
Natural Resources, the Environment, and National Income Accounts
CASE IN POINT Environmental Problems in Central and Eastern Europe
Environmental Justice
Environmental Justice and Ethical Issues
Mandating Environmental Justice at the Federal Level
Environmental Justice at the International Level
Environmental Ethics, Values, and Worldviews
Environmental Ethics
Environmental Worldviews
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
3. Ecosystems and Energy
What Is Ecology?
The Energy of Life
The First Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
CASE IN POINT Life Without the Sun
The Flow of Energy through Ecosystems
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
The Path of Energy Flow: Who Eats Whom In Ecosystems
CASE IN POINT How Humans Have Affected the Antarctic Food Web
Ecological Pyramids
Ecosystem Productivity
Human Impact on Net Primary Productivity
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
4. Ecosystems and the Physical Environment
The Cycling of Materials within Ecosystems
The Carbon Cycle
The Nitrogen Cycle
The Phosphorus Cycle
The Sulfur Cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle
Solar Radiation
Temperature Changes with Latitude
Temperature Changes with the Seasons
The Atmosphere
Layers of the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Circulation
The Global Ocean
Patterns of Circulation in the Ocean
Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water
Ocean Interactions with the Atmosphere
Weather and Climate
Tropical Cyclones
CASE IN POINT Hurricane Katrina
Internal Planetary Processes
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
5. Ecosystems and Living Organisms
Evolution: How Populations Change over Time
Natural Selection
Modern Synthesis
Evolution of Biological Diversity: The Organization of Life
Principles of Population Ecology
Population Density
How Do Populations Change in Size?
Maximum Population Growth
Environmental Resistance and Carrying Capacity
Factors that Affect Population Size
Reproductive Strategies
Biological Communities
The Ecological Niche
Keystone Species
Species Richness in a Community
Species Richness, Ecosystem Services, and Community Stability
CASE IN POINT Gardens As Ecosystems
Community Development
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
Exponential and Logistic Population Growth: Equations
6. Major Ecosystems of the World
Earth’s Major Biomes
Tundra: Cold Boggy Plains of the Far North
Boreal Forests: Conifer Forests of the North
Temperate Rain Forests: Lush Temperate Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests: Trees that Shed their Leaves
Grasslands: Temperate Seas of Grass
Chaparral: Thickets of Evergreen Shrubs and Small Trees
Deserts: Arid Life Zones
Savanna: Tropical Grasslands
Tropical Rain Forests: Lush Equatorial Forests
Vertical Zonation: The Distribution of Vegetation on Mountains
Aquatic Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
CASE IN POINT The Everglades
Estuaries: Where Fresh Water and Salt Water Meet
Marine Ecosystems
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
7. Human Health and Environmental Toxicology
Human Health
Health Issues in Highly Developed Countries
Health Issues in Developing Countries
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
CASE IN POINT Influenza Pandemics Past and Future
Environmental Pollution and Disease
Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification of Environmental Contaminants
Endocrine Disrupters
Determining Health Effects of Environmental Pollution
Identifying Toxic Substances
Children and Chemical Exposure
Ecotoxicology: Toxicant Effects on Communities and Ecosystems
CASE IN POINT The Ocean and Human Health
Decision Making and Uncertainty: Assessment of Risks
Risk Information as a Decision Tool
Ecological Risk Assessment
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
8. The Human Population
The Science of Demography
Current and Future Population Numbers
Human Migration
Demographics of Countries
Demographic Stages
Age Structure
Population and Quality of Life
Population and Chronic Hunger
Economic Effects of Continued Population Growth
Reducing the Total Fertility Rate
Culture and Fertility
The Social and Economic Status of Women
Family Planning Services
Government Policies and Fertility
China and Mexico: Contrasting Population Growth Measures
CASE IN POINT The Millennium Development Goals
Achieving Population Stabilization
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
9. The Urban Environment
Population and Urbanization
Characteristics of the Urban Population
Urbanization Trends
The City as an Ecosystem
Phoenix, Arizona: Long-Term Study of an Urban Ecosystem
Environmental Problems Associated with Urban Areas
Environmental Benefits of Urbanization
Urban Land-Use Planning
Transportation and Urban Development
Suburban Sprawl
Making Cities More Sustainable
CASE IN POINT Curitiba, Brazil
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
10. Energy Consumption
Energy Consumption and Policy
Energy Consumption
Energy Efficiency and Conservation
Energy Efficiency
Energy Conservation
Electricity, Hydrogen, and Energy Storage
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
CASE IN POINT Hydrogen and Electricity for Transportation
Energy Storage
Energy Policy
Objective 1: Increase Energy Efficiency and Conservation
Objective 2: Secure Future Fossil-Fuel Energy Supplies
Objective 3: Develop Alternative Energy Sources
Objective 4: Meet Previous Objectives without Further Damage to the Environment
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
11. Fossil Fuels
Fossil Fuels
How Fossil Fuels Formed
Fossil Fuels, the Carbon Cycle, and Climate
Coal Reserves
Coal Mining
Safety Problems Associated with Coal
Environmental Impacts of the Mining Process
Environmental Impacts of burning Coal
Making Coal a Cleaner Fuel
Coal And Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Oil and Natural Gas
Exploration for Oil and Natural Gas
Reserves of Oil and Natural Gas
CASE IN POINT The Marcellus Shale
Global Oil Demand and Supply
Environmental Impacts of Oil and Natural Gas
CASE IN POINT The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Synfuels and Other Potential Fossil-Fuel Resources
Environmental Impacts of Synfuels
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
12. Renewable Energy and Nuclear Power
Direct Solar Energy
Heating Buildings and Water
Solar Thermal Electricity Generation
Indirect Solar Energy
Energy From Biomass
Wind Energy
CASE IN POINT The Three Gorges Dam
Other Uses of Indirect Solar Energy
Other Renewable Energy Sources
Geothermal Energy
Tidal Energy
Nuclear Power
Electricity from Conventional Nuclear Fission
Breeder Reactors and Mixed Oxide Fuel (Mox) for Nuclear Fission
Pros and Cons of Nuclear Energy
Safety Issues at Nuclear Power Plants
Public and Expert Attitudes Toward Nuclear Energy
Radioactive Wastes
Wastes With Short Half-Lives and High-Level Liquid Wastes
CASE IN POINT Yucca Mountain
Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
The Future of Nuclear Power
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
13. Water: A Limited Resource
The Importance of Water
Properties of Water
The Hydrologic Cycle and Our Supply of Fresh Water
Water Use and Resource Problems
Too Much Water
CASE IN POINT The Floods of 2011
Too Little Water
Water Problems in the United States and Canada
Surface Water
Global Water Problems
Water and Climate Change
Drinking-Water Problems
Population Growth and Water Problems
Sharing Water Resources Among Countries
Water Management
Providing a Sustainable Water Supply
Water Conservation
Reducing Agricultural Water Waste
Reducing Industrial Water Waste
Reducing Municipal Water Waste
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
14. Soil Resources
The Soil System
State Factors: Soil-Forming Factors
Soil Composition
Soil Horizons
Soil Organisms
Nutrient Cycling
Soil Properties and Major Soil Types
Soil Acidity
Major Soil Groups
Environmental Problems Related to Soil
Soil Erosion
CASE IN POINT The American Dust Bowl
Nutrient Mineral Depletion
Soil Salinization
Soil Conservation and Regeneration
Conservation Tillage
Crop Rotation
Contour Plowing, Strip Cropping, and Terracing
Preserving Soil Fertility
Soil Reclamation
Soil Conservation Policies In The United States
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
15. Mineral Resources
Introduction to Minerals
Mineral Distribution and Formation
How Minerals are Found, Extracted, and Processed
Environmental Impacts Associated with Minerals
Mining and the Environment
Environmental Impacts of Refining Minerals
CASE IN POINT Copper Basin, Tennessee
Restoration of Mining Lands
Minerals: An International Perspective
Worldwide Mineral Production and Consumption
Mineral Distribution Versus Consumption
Evaluating Our Mineral Supplies
Increasing the Supply of Minerals
Locating and Mining New Deposits
Minerals in Antarctica
Minerals from the Ocean
Advanced Mining and Processing Technologies
Using Substitution and Conservation to Expand Mineral Supplies
Finding Mineral Substitutes
Mineral Conservation
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
16. Biological Resources
Biological Diversity
Why We Need Organisms
Extinction and Species Endangerment
Endangered and Threatened Species
Where is Declining Biological Diversity the Greatest Problem?
Human Causes of Species Endangerment
CASE IN POINT Disappearing Frogs
Conservation Biology
In Situ Conservation: Protecting Habitats
Restoring Damaged or Destroyed Habitats
Zoos, Aquaria, Botanical Gardens, and Seed Banks
Conservation Organizations
Conservation Policies and Laws
Habitat Conservation Plans
International Conservation Policies and Laws
Wildlife Management
Management of Migratory Animals
Management of Aquatic Organisms
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
17. Land Resources
Land Use
World Land Use
Land Use in the United States
Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges
National Parks
Wildlife Refuges
Forest Management
Forest Trends in the United States
CASE IN POINT Tongass National Forest
Trends in Tropical Forests
Boreal Forests and Deforestation
Rangelands and Agricultural Lands
Rangeland Degradation and Desertification
Rangeland Trends in the United States
Agricultural Lands
Wetlands and Coastal Areas
Conservation of Land Resources
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
18. Food Resources
World Food Security
Maintaining Grain Stocks
Economics, Politics, and Food Security
Poverty and Food
Food Production
Sources of Food
The Main Types of Agriculture
Challenges of Producing More Crops and Livestock
The Effect of Domestication on Genetic Diversity
The Global Decline In Domesticated Plant And Animal Varieties
CASE IN POINT Grow Appalachia
Supplements for Livestock
Genetic Modification
The Environmental Impacts of Agriculture
Solutions to Agricultural Problems
Fisheries of the World
Problems and Challenges for the Fishing Industry
Aquaculture: Fish Farming
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
19. Air Pollution
The Atmosphere as a Resource
Types and Sources of Air Pollution
Major Classes of Air Pollutants
Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution
Urban Air Pollution
CASE IN POINT Efforts To Reduce Ozone In Southern California
Effects of Air Pollution
Air Pollution and Human Health
Controlling Air Pollution in the United States
Controlling Air Pollutants
The Clean Air Act
Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
Stratospheric Ozone Thinning
The Effects of Ozone Depletion
Facilitating the Recovery of the Ozone Layer
Acid Deposition
How Acid Deposition Develops
The Effects of Acid Deposition
Managing Acid Deposition
Air Pollution around the World
Air Pollution in Developing Countries
CASE IN POINT Air Pollution in Beijing, New Delhi, and Mexico City
Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution
Indoor Air Pollution
Sources and Effects of Indoor Air Pollution
Tobacco Smoke and Radon
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
20. Global Climate Change
Introduction to Climate Change
The Causes of Global Climate Change
Pollutants that Cool the Atmosphere
Modeling the Future Climate
Unpredictable and Extreme Climate Change
The Effects of Global Climate Change
Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels
CASE IN POINT Impacts in Fragile Areas
Changes in Precipitation Patterns
Effects on Organisms
Effects on Human Health
Effects on Agriculture
International Implications of Global Climate Change
Links among Global Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, and Acid Deposition
Dealing with Global Climate Change
Mitigation of Global Climate Change
Adaptation to Global Climate Change
International Efforts to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
21. Water Pollution
Types of Water Pollution
Disease-Causing Agents
Sediment Pollution
Inorganic Plant and Algal Nutrients
Organic Compounds
Inorganic Chemicals
Radioactive Substances
Thermal Pollution
Water Quality Today
Water Pollution from Agriculture
Municipal Water Pollution
Industrial Wastes in Water
CASE IN POINT Green Chemistry
Groundwater Pollution
Water Pollution in Other Countries
Improving Water Quality
Purification of Drinking Water
Municipal Sewage Treatment
Individual Septic Systems
Alternative Wastewater Treatment Systems
Laws Controlling Water Pollution
Safe Drinking Water Act
Clean Water Act
Laws that Protect Groundwater
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
22. Pest Management
What Is a Pesticide?
First-Generation and Second-Generation Pesticides
The Major Groups of Insecticides
The Major Kinds of Herbicides
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
Benefit: Disease Control
Benefit: Crop Protection
Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance
Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
Problems: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification
Problem: Mobility in the Environment
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health
Short-Term Effects of Pesticides
Long-Term Effects of Pesticides
Pesticides as Endocrine Disrupters
Alternatives to Pesticides
Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests
Biological Controls
Pheromones and Hormones
Reproductive Controls
Genetic Controls
CASE IN POINT Bt, Its Potential and Problems
The Systems Approach: Integrated Pest Management
Irradiating Foods
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use
Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
Food Quality Protection Act
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides
Importation of Food Tainted with Banned Pesticides
Global Ban on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
23. Solid and Hazardous Wastes
Solid Waste
Types of Solid Waste
Open Dumps
Sanitary Landfills
Waste Prevention
Reducing the Amount of Waste: Source Reduction
Reusing Products
Recycling Materials
Integrated Waste Management
Hazardous Waste
Types of Hazardous Waste
CASE IN POINT Hanford Nuclear Reservation
Management of Hazardous Waste
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
24. Tomorrow’s World
Living Sustainably
Sustainable Living: A Plan of Action
Recommendation 1: Eliminate Poverty and Stabilize the Human Population
Recommendation 2: Protect and Restore Earth’s Resources
Recommendation 3: Provide Adequate Food for all People
CASE IN POINT Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture
Recommendation 4: Mitigate Climate Change
Recommendation 5: Design Sustainable Cities
CASE IN POINT Durban, South Africa
Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices
The Role of Education
What Kind of World Do We Want?
Review of Learning Objectives with Selected Key Terms
J - K
Q - R
U - V
Y- Z
J - K
M - N
Q - R
V - W
Y - Z

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