Handbook of Heavy Oil Properties and Analysis

دانلود کتاب Handbook of Heavy Oil Properties and Analysis

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کتاب هندبوک خواص و تحلیل نفت سنگین نسخه زبان اصلی

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Handbook of Heavy Oil Properties and Analysis

نام کتاب : Handbook of Heavy Oil Properties and Analysis
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : هندبوک خواص و تحلیل نفت سنگین
سری :
نویسندگان :
ناشر : Wiley
سال نشر : 2023
تعداد صفحات : 494
ISBN (شابک) : 9781119577157 , 9781119577102
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 4 مگابایت



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فهرست مطالب :


Cover
Title Page
Copyright Page
Contents
About the Author
Preface
Chapter 1 History and Terminology
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Historical Perspectives
1.2.1 Pre-Christian Era Use of Heavy Oil and Bitumen
1.2.2 Post-Christian Era Use of Heavy Oil and Bitumen
1.3 Definitions and Terminology
1.3.1 Nonviscous Feedstocks
1.3.1.1 Crude Oil
1.3.1.2 Opportunity Crude Oil
1.3.1.3 High-Acid Crude Oil
1.3.1.4 Foamy Oil
1.3.2 Viscous Feedstocks
1.3.2.1 Gas Oil
1.3.2.2 Heavy Crude Oil
1.3.2.3 Extra Heavy Crude Oil
1.3.2.4 Tar Sand Bitumen
1.3.2.5 Residuum
1.3.2.6 Asphalt
1.3.2.7 Tar and Pitch
1.3.2.8 Sludge
1.4 Classification
1.5 Feedstock Evaluation
1.6 Modern Analytical Perspectives
References
Chapter 2 Sampling and Measurement
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Sampling
2.2.1 Sampling Protocol
2.2.1.1 Sampling Semi-volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds
2.2.1.2 Solids
2.2.1.3 Extract Concentration
2.2.1.4 Sample Cleanup
2.2.2 Representative Sample
2.2.3 Sampling Error
2.3 Measurement
2.4 Method Validation
2.4.1 Requirements
2.4.2 Method Detection Limit
2.4.3 Accuracy
2.4.4 Precision
2.5 Quality Control and Quality Assurance
2.5.1 Quality Control
2.5.2 Quality Assurance
2.6 Assay and Specifications
2.6.1 Assay
2.6.2 Specifications
2.6.3 Metallic Constituents
2.6.4 Water Content
2.7 Environmental Issues
References
Chapter 3 Chemical Composition
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Elemental Composition
3.3 Chemical Composition
3.3.1 Hydrocarbon Constituents
3.3.1.1 Paraffin Hydrocarbon Derivatives
3.3.1.2 Cycloparaffin Hydrocarbon Derivatives
3.3.1.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbon Derivatives
3.3.1.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Derivatives
3.3.2 Non-hydrocarbon Constituents
3.3.2.1 Sulfur Compounds
3.3.2.2 Nitrogen Compounds
3.3.2.3 Oxygen Compounds
3.3.3 Metallic Constituents
3.3.4 Porphyrins
3.4 Chemical Composition by Distillation
3.4.1 Vacuum Gas Oil
3.4.2 Vacuum Residua
3.5 Chemical Composition by Spectroscopy
3.5.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
3.5.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
3.5.3 Mass Spectrometry
3.5.4 Other Techniques
References
Chapter 4 Fractional Composition
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Distillation
4.3 Solvent Treatment
4.3.1 Asphaltene Separation
4.3.1.1 Influence of Solvent Type
4.3.1.2 Influence of the Degree of Dilution
4.3.1.3 Influence of Temperature
4.3.1.4 Influence of Contact Time
4.3.2 Fractionation
4.3.3 Carbenes and Carboids
4.4 Adsorption
4.4.1 Chemical Factors
4.4.2 Fractionation Methods
4.4.2.1 General Methods
4.4.2.2 ASTM Methods
4.5 Chemical Methods
4.5.1 Acid Treatment
4.5.2 Molecular Complex Formation
4.5.2.1 Urea Adduction
4.5.2.2 Thiourea Adduction
4.5.2.3 Adduct Composition
4.5.2.4 Adduct Structure
4.5.2.5 Adduct Properties
4.6 The Asphaltene Fraction
4.7 Carbenes and Carboids
4.8 Use of the Data
References
Chapter 5 Chemical Properties
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Acid Number
5.3 Elemental Analysis and Metals
5.4 Emulsion Formation
5.5 Evaporation
5.6 Flash Point and Fire Point
5.7 Functional Group Analysis
5.8 Halogenation
5.9 Hydrogenation
5.10 Oxidation
5.11 Thermal Methods
5.12 Miscellaneous Methods
References
Chapter 6 Physical Properties, Electrical Properties, and Optical Properties
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Physical Properties
6.2.1 Adhesion
6.2.2 Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity
6.2.3 Surface and Interfacial Tension
6.2.4 Viscosity
6.3 Electrical Properties
6.3.1 Conductivity
6.3.2 Dielectric Constant
6.3.3 Dielectric Strength
6.3.4 Dielectric Loss and Power Factor
6.3.5 Static Electrification
6.4 Optical Properties
6.4.1 Optical Activity
6.4.2 Refractive Index
References
Chapter 7 Thermal Properties
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Ash Production
7.3 Carbon Residue
7.4 Critical Properties
7.5 Enthalpy
7.6 Heat of Combustion
7.7 Latent Heat
7.8 Liquefaction and Solidification
7.9 Pour Point
7.10 Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships
7.11 Softening Point
7.12 Specific Heat
7.13 Thermal Conductivity
7.14 Volatility
References
Chapter 8 Chromatographic Properties
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Adsorption Chromatography
8.3 Gas Chromatography
8.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography
8.5 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
8.6 Ion Exchange Chromatography
8.7 Simulated Distillation
8.8 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
8.9 Thin Layer Chromatography
References
Chapter 9 Structural Group Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Physical Property Methods
9.2.1 Density Method
9.2.2 Density–Temperature Coefficient Method
9.2.3 Direct Method
9.2.4 Dispersion–Refraction Method
9.2.5 Molecular Weight-Refractive Index Method
9.2.6 n-d-M Method
9.2.7 Waterman Ring Analysis
9.2.8 Miscellaneous Methods
9.3 Spectroscopic Methods
9.3.1 Electron Spin Resonance
9.3.2 Infrared Spectroscopy
9.3.3 Mass Spectrometry
9.3.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
9.3.5 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
9.3.6 X-ray Diffraction
9.4 Heteroatom Systems
9.4.1 Nitrogen
9.4.2 Oxygen
9.4.3 Sulfur
9.4.4 Metals
9.5 Miscellaneous Methods
References
Chapter 10 Molecular Weight Determination
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Methods for Molecular Weight Measurement
10.2.1 Vapor Pressure Osmometry
10.2.2 Freezing Point Depression
10.2.3 Boiling Point Elevation
10.2.4 Size Exclusion Chromatography
10.2.5 Mass Spectrometry
10.2.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
10.3 Molecular Weights of Volatile Fractions
10.4 Molecular Weights of Nonvolatile Fractions
10.4.1 Resins
10.4.2 Asphaltenes
10.4.3 Carbenes and Carboids
References
Chapter 11 Instability and Incompatibility
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Occurrence of Instability and Incompatibility
11.3 Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility
11.3.1 Acidity
11.3.2 Asphaltene Content
11.3.3 Density/Specific Gravity
11.3.4 Elemental Analysis
11.3.5 Metals Content
11.3.6 Pour Point
11.3.7 Viscosity
11.3.8 Volatility
11.3.9 Water Content, Salt Content, Bottom Sediment and Water (BS&W)
11.4 Determination of Instability and Incompatibility
References
Chapter 12 Use of the Data
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Use of the Data
12.3 Process Analysis and Feedstock Mapping
12.3.1 Property Predictions
12.3.2 Predicting Separations
12.3.3 Process Predictability
12.4 Environmental Aspects of Processing
12.4.1 Gaseous Emissions
12.4.2 Liquid Effluents
12.4.3 Solid Effluents
12.5 Analytical Methods for Environmental Regulations
12.5.1 Definitions
12.5.2 Environmental Regulations
12.5.3 Environmental Analysis
References
Glossary
Conversion Factors
Index
EULA




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