Historical Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Archaeology in the Iberian Peninsula

دانلود کتاب Historical Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Archaeology in the Iberian Peninsula

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کتاب زمین لرزه های تاریخی، سونامی و باستان شناسی در شبه جزیره ایبری نسخه زبان اصلی

دانلود کتاب زمین لرزه های تاریخی، سونامی و باستان شناسی در شبه جزیره ایبری بعد از پرداخت مقدور خواهد بود
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نام کتاب : Historical Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Archaeology in the Iberian Peninsula
ویرایش : 1
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : زمین لرزه های تاریخی، سونامی و باستان شناسی در شبه جزیره ایبری
سری : Natural Science in Archaeology
نویسندگان : ,
ناشر : Springer
سال نشر : 2022
تعداد صفحات : 431
ISBN (شابک) : 9789811919787 , 981191978X
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 28 مگابایت



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Acknowledgements
Contents
About the Editors
1 Breaking the Waves: Earthquake and Tsunami Research in the Iberian Peninsula from a Historiographical Perspective
Abstract
1.1 The Written Sources
1.2 The Seismic Catalogues
1.3 The Historical Records and Geological Research
1.4 New Perspectives: The Need for Interdisciplinary Collaboration
1.5 Purpose and Organisation of the Book
Acknowledgements
References
Introduction: History and Historiography
2 Not Exactly Atlantis: Some Lessons from Ancient Mediterranean Myths
Abstract
2.1 Tartessos and Atlantis: Comparing Apples and Oranges?
2.2 Some Lessons From Plato’s Atlantis
2.3 The Theme of the “Great Flood” as a Universal Cataclysm
2.4 The Final Ordeal, With or Without Water
2.5 Back to Atlantis and the West
2.6 Final Remarks
Acknowledgments
References
3 Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Ancient Iberia: The Historical Sources
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The Ancient and Mediaeval Literary Sources
3.3 Florián de Ocampo and the Crónica General de España
3.4 Bernardo de Brito and the Monarchia Lusytana
3.5 Some Subsequent Accounts
3.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
The Geological Record of Tsunamis in the Iberian Peninsula: An Overview
4 Triggering Mechanisms of Tsunamis in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea: An Overview
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea: A Region Affected by Tsunamis
4.1.2 Tsunamigenic Sources
4.1.3 Aim of the Study
4.2 Geodynamic Setting
4.3 Seismicity of the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea Region
4.3.1 Seismicity Distribution
4.3.2 Focal Mechanism Solutions
4.4 Quaternary Faults
4.4.1 General Considerations
4.4.2 The Gulf of Cadiz
4.4.3 The Alboran Sea
4.4.4 An Approach to Tsunami Potential
4.4.5 Recommendations for Future Actions
4.5 Submarine Landslides
4.5.1 General Considerations
4.5.2 Landslides in the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea Region: Distribution, Types, and Recurrence
4.5.3 Defining Tsunamigenic Potential
4.5.4 Recommendations for Future Actions
4.6 Discussion and Conclusions
4.6.1 Seismotectonic Sources
4.6.2 Submarine Landslide Area Sources
4.6.3 Interplay Between Different Factors in the Region
Acknowledgements
References
5 Tsunami Deposits in Atlantic Iberia: A Succinct Review
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Iberian Tsunami Deposits
5.2.1 EWEs Ca. 8000–6400 cal BP
5.2.2 EWEs Ca. 5000–4000 cal BP
5.2.3 EWEs Ca. 4000–3000 cal BP
5.2.4 EWEs Ca. 3000–2500 cal BP
5.2.5 EWEs Ca. 2200–1600 CalBP: The “Roman” Event and “sibling” Events
5.2.6 Last 1500 years
5.2.7 The 1755 Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami
5.3 EWEs: Tsunamis or Large Storms?
5.4 Concluding Remarks
Acknowledgements
References
6 Extreme-Wave Events in the Guadalquivir Estuary in the Late Holocene: Paleogeographical and Cultural Implications
Abstract
6.1 Introduction: The Illustrative Case of the Short-, Mid-, and Long-Term Effects of the So-Called “Lisbon Earthquake” of 1755
6.2 The Recurrence of EWEs in Southwestern Iberia
6.3 The Rise and Fall of the Uniformitarian Paradigm in the Geology of Southwestern Iberia
6.4 EWEs in the Guadalquivir Estuary: The Hinojos Project
6.4.1 EWE A, ca. 2555 cal yr BC
6.4.2 EWE B, ca. cal yr 2000 BC
6.4.3 EWE C, ca. cal yr 1550 BC
6.4.4 EWE D, ca. cal yr 1150 BC
6.4.5 Ewe E, 100–300 AD
6.5 A Possible EWE Between the Eighth and the Fourth Centuries BC
6.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
7 The Record of Extreme Wave Events in the Bay of Cadiz During Historical Times
Abstract
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The Bay of Cadiz. Potentiality of EWE Marker Preservation
7.2.1 The Outer Confining Barrier Island
7.2.2 The Northern Bay
7.2.3 The Central Inner Bay
7.2.4 The Southern Bay
7.3 Methodology
7.4 Chronology of EWEs in the Bay of Cadiz
7.4.1 Prehistoric Deposits
7.4.2 Deposits of the Antique Period
7.4.3 Deposits and Forms from Roman to Early Modern Times (Third to Seventeenth Centuries AD)
7.4.4 Late Modern to Recent Deposits and Forms (Eighteenth Century-Present-Day)
7.5 Summary and Conclusions
References
Historical Tsunamis, Paleotsunamis and Paleoearthquakes in the Iberian Peninsula: Case Studies
8 Archaeological and Geophysical Evidence of a High-Energy Marine Event at the Phoenician Site of Cerro del Villar (Malaga, Spain)
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Palaeogeographical Description
8.3 The Destruction Layers of the Settlement (First Quarter of the Seventh Century BC and Last Quarter of the Seventh Century BC)
8.3.1 Test Pit 5: The Archaeological Levels
8.3.2 Test Pit 5: The Geological Strata
8.4 The Geological Field Campaign of 2019
8.4.1 Methods
8.4.2 Preliminary Results
8.4.2.1 Results from Cores MAL-CV-1 and MAL-CV-2
Core MAL-CV-1
Core MAL-CV-2
Radiocarbon Ages of the Samples from Core MAL-CV-2
8.4.2.2 Results for the GPR Profiles
8.4.3 Preliminary Data Interpretation
8.5 Tsunamis on the Coast of Malaga
8.6 Tsunamigenic Sources in the Western Alboran Sea
8.7 Discussion
8.8 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
9 High-Energy Events and Human Settlements in the Bay of Lagos (Portugal) in the Iron Age and Roman Times
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The Bay of Lagos: Data
9.3 Final Remarks
Acknowledgements
References
10 At the Mercy of the Sea—Vulnerability of Roman Coastal Settlements in the Algarve (Portugal). Boca do Rio as an Emblematic Example of a Key Maritime Industry
Abstract
10.1 The Roman Fish-Salting Industry, Its Development and Connection to Tsunami Research
10.2 Testing the Tsunami Hypothesis—‘Vulnerability’ of the Algarve Coast to Extreme Wave Events
10.3 Topographical–Geological Environment and Archaeological Overview of the Site of Boca do Rio
10.4 Extent of the Fieldwork and applied Methodology
10.5 Results and Interpretation
10.5.1 The Settlement
10.5.2 The Cliff
10.5.3 The Harbour
10.5.3.1 The Quay: Harbour Front, Ramp and Platform
10.5.3.2 Changes in the Building Stock of the Quay and the Sedimentation of the Harbour Basin
10.5.4 Kiln II
10.5.4.1 The Structure and Features of Kiln II
10.5.4.2 The Destruction and Abandonment of the Kiln
10.5.5 An Event Layer in the Harbour Basin and its Geophysical Description, UE 387
10.6 Discussion
10.6.1 Size and Importance of the Fish-Salting Facilities of Boca do Rio
10.6.2 Identification of Major Upheavals in the Settlement’s Development
10.6.3 Identification and Correlation of EWEs and the Identified Disruption in the Settlement’s Development
10.7 Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
11 The Impact of High-Energy Events on the Economy and Coastal Changes Along the Coast of Huelva in Ancient Times
Abstract
Introduction
Study Area
11.2.1 The South-Western Coast of Spain
11.2.2 Geomorphologic Context
11.2.3 Historical Tsunamis in Spain, Portugal and Morocco
11.2.4 Geological Evidence of High-Energy Events in South-Western Spain
Coastal Settlements in Huelva in Roman Times
11.3.1 Archaeological and Historical Issues
11.3.2 Disruption in the Third Century AD
11.3.2.1 Archaeological Evidence
11.3.2.2 Geological Evidence
Guadalquivir Estuary
Guadalete Estuary
The Rock of Gibraltar
Final Reflection
Acknowledgements
References
12 A Third Century AD Extreme Wave Event Identified in a Collapse Facies of a Public Building in the Roman City of Hispalis (Seville, Spain)
Abstract
12.1 Extreme Wave Events in Southwestern Iberia During Roman Times: Debating the Third Century AD Event(s)
12.2 Roman Hispalis (Modern Seville): A Port Opened to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean
12.3 The Third Century AD Collapse Facies Documented in the Patio De Banderas Excavation
12.4 Materials and Methods
12.5 Results
12.5.1 Archaeological Materials and C-14 Dating: Assessing the Chronology of the Studied Deposit
12.5.2 Soil Micromorphology
12.5.3 Geochemistry and Mineralogy
12.5.4 Malacology and Micropaleontology
12.6 The Sedimentary Origin of the Third Century AD Collapse Facies of Patio De Banderas
12.7 Contextualization of the Patio de Banderas High-Energy Deposit in the Third Century AD EWE Event(s) in Southwestern Iberia
12.8 Conclusions: Further Research is Needed
Acknowledgements
References
13 The Baelo Claudia Tsunami Archive (SW Spain)—Archaeological Deposits of High-Energy Events
Abstract
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Prehistoric and Historical Records of Tsunamis and Earthquakes in the Western Mediterranean and the Gulf of Cadiz
13.3 Methodology
13.3.1 Vibracoring, Micropalaeontology and Palynomorphs
13.3.2 Radiocarbon Dating
13.3.3 OSL Dating
13.3.4 GPR
13.4 Results
13.4.1 Archaeological Excavations and Archaeoseismic Finds
13.4.1.1 Eastern Necropolis and Mausoleums of the “Carteia Gate”
13.4.1.2 The Decumanus Maximus
13.4.2 GPR Profiles
13.4.3 Drilling in the Floodplain: Sedimentological and Palaeontological Results
13.4.4 Pollen Data and Environmental Characterisation
13.5 Dating Results, Interpretation of Events and Discussion
13.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
14 A Late Roman Earthquake on the Southern Shore of the Strait of Gibraltar: Archaeoseismological Evidence in Septem
Abstract
14.1 Introduction: Ceuta, the Principal Late Roman City in the Strait of Gibraltar
14.2 Archaeology in the Baluarte de la Bandera (Excavations, Phases and Features)
14.2.1 Phase I. Late Republican–Early Imperial: Unknown Function
14.2.2 Phase II. Early Late Roman (from the Late Antonine to the Early Severan Period): Construction and Use of Possible Defensive Structures
14.2.3 Phase III. Advanced Late Roman Period (from the Late Imperial Period or the Vandal Period, to the First Half of the Seventh Century): Addition of Defensive Elements and Construction of the (Byzantine?) Wall
14.2.4 Phase IV. Second Half of the Seventh Century: Earthquake and Burials
14.2.5 Phase V. Emirate-Caliphate Periods (Eighth to Tenth Centuries): Possible Continuity of the Fortification, and Construction of Abd Al-Rahman III’s Fortification
14.2.6 Phase VI. Early Modern (XVI–XVIII)
14.2.7 Phase VII. Recent (XIX–XX)
14.3 The Earliest Late Roman Structures—Late Antonine to Early Severan Period (Phase II)—Affected by the Late Roman Earthquake
14.3.1 Dating Problems
14.3.2 Building Techniques, Stratigraphic Relationships and Function of the Structures
14.3.3 Structural Pathologies in Defensive Wall M-3/M-4
14.4 The Late Roman Wall of the Baluarte de la Bandera (Phase III)
14.5 The Date of the Seventh-Century Earthquake and the Byzantine Burials
14.6 Conclusions: New Perspectives on the Fortifications of Septem and a Late Antique Earthquake on the African Shores of the Fretum Gaditanum
Acknowledgements
References
15 Multi-proxy Analysis of the AD 1755 Lisbon Tsunami Deposits in El Palmar de Vejer, Spain
Abstract
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Research Area
15.2.1 Study Area
15.2.2 AD 1755 Lisbon Tsunami
15.3 Methods
15.3.1 GPR
15.3.2 Sample Material
15.3.3 Grain Size Analysis
15.3.4 XRF
15.3.5 MSM
15.3.6 Total Carbon
15.3.7 Organic Geochemistry
15.3.7.1 Extraction and Measurement
15.3.7.2 Data Presentation
15.4 Results
15.4.1 GPR Profiles
15.4.2 Granulometric, Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry—Stratigraphic Units
15.4.2.1 Unit I
15.4.2.2 Unit II—Sand Layer
15.4.2.3 Unit III
15.4.2.4 Reference Samples
15.5 Discussion
15.5.1 Interpretation of the Sedimentological Units
15.5.1.1 Unit I—Floodplain, Backshore Lagoon Deposits
15.5.1.2 Unit II—EWE Layer
15.5.1.3 Unit III
15.5.2 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Tsunami Deposits in El Palmar de Vejer
15.5.3 Overview of the Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the AD 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in El Palmar de Vejer
15.5.4 Tsunami Propagation
15.5.5 Other Evidence for an EWE in the Study Area
15.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References




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