International Handbookof Disaster Research

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب International Handbookof Disaster Research

نام کتاب : International Handbookof Disaster Research
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : کتابچه راهنمای بین المللی تحقیقات بلایا
سری :
نویسندگان :
ناشر : Springer
سال نشر : 2023
تعداد صفحات : 2537
ISBN (شابک) : 9789811983870 , 9789811983887
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 48 مگابایت



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فهرست مطالب :


Preface
Acknowledgment
Contents
About the Editor
Section Editors
Contributors
Part I: Introduction
1 Introduction to the International Handbook of Disaster Research
A Guide to Better Research in Disaster Management
Provides Space for Non-Western Narratives and Strategies for Disaster Management
A Holistic Framework of the Handbook
Synchronizing International Framework with National and Local
Ideas Highlighted in Sections
Conclusion
References
Part II: Policy Implementation and Best Practices
2 Policy Implementation and Best Practices in Disaster Management
Introduction
A Few Perceptive Findings Define the Universe of Implementation
Essentials of Implementation
Implementation Has a Strong Connection to Local Governance
Digitization of Disaster Management Policy Implementation
Implementation and Political Expediency
Conclusion
References
3 Accountability in Disaster Governance
Introduction
Can the King Do Some Wrong?
The Restrictive Approach in the USA
The Rights-Based Approach of ECtHR
A New Shape for Immunity in India
Protection Under DM Act
Operational Choices
Disaster Management Act: Testing the Water with Covid 19
Basic Structure
Too Many Cooks?
District Administration
Social Welfare Schemes
Covid 19 and Indian Courts
Conclusion: Unraveling Accountability in Disaster Governance
References
4 Property Rights for Disaster Recovery
Introduction
Private Property in Historical Perspective
Private Property Advocacy in the Twenty-First Century
What We Know About Property
Conclusion
References
5 Man-Made Disaster: A Case of Failed Governance in a Latin American Economy
Introduction
Intersection of Disasters and Corruption
Natural Versus Man-Made Disasters
Corruption in Procurement
The Case of Tucumn´s Failed Bridges
Collapsed Bridges As a Result of Forces of Nature Aided by Suspected Corruption
Corrupt Practices in the Procurement of Bridge Repairs and Construction
Power Pursuit and Building of Economic Capital
Conclusion
References
6 Indigenous Knowledge as Early Warning Guide in Disaster Management
Introduction
Indigenous Knowledge and International Agencies
Indigenous Knowledge on Early Warnings
1970 Bhola Cyclone
Floods and Draughts in Malawi
Smong in Simeulue Island, Aceh, Indonesia
Halo in Kuki Indigenous Knowledge
Conclusion
References
7 Institutional Preparedness Against Disasters: A Case Study of Odisha
Introduction
Odisha: a Disaster Vulnerable State
Incorporating Lessons Learnt from Super Cyclone 1999
Intricacies of Institutional Preparedness
Odisha State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA)
Odisha Disaster Rapid Action Force (ODRAF)
Odisha Fire Services
Odisha Fire and Disaster Response Academy (OFDRA), Bhubaneswar
Odisha Fire and Disaster Response Institute (OFDRI), Naraj, Cuttack
Keeping ``Community´´ at the Core
Disaster Resilient Infrastructure
Inclusive Strategy
Integrated Approach
Conclusion
References
8 Building Disaster-Resilient Coastal Cities: An Assessment of Coastal Regulation Laws and Judicial Statements in India
Introduction
Maradu: Facts and History
Legislative Framework on Coastal Regulation
Major Judicial Trends
Balancing the Permissible Activities
Adoption of Environmental Principles
Institutional Authority
Maradu Case Impact on Environmental Jurisprudence
Conclusion
References
9 Animal Welfare During Disasters in South Asia
Introduction
Welfare Concerns of Pets and Homeless Animals During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Inflicting Harm to Pets and Strays by Committing an Act
Inflicting Harm to Pets and Strays by Omitting an Act
Abandoning of Pets
Recommendations
Mitigation Steps to Protect Pets and Homeless Animals During a Pandemic
Preparedness to Protect Pets and Homeless Animals During a Pandemic
Response Steps to Protect Pets and Homeless Animals During a Pandemic
Conclusion
References
10 Public Sector Continuity Planning: Preparing the Bureaucracy in the Age of the New Normal
Introduction: The Challenges to Governments in the ``Age of the New Normal´´
Bureaucracy for Emergencies
Rigidity in Bureaucracy: The Limitations of the Bureaucratic Model During Disasters/Emergencies
Public Service Continuity Planning: Helping the Government Provide Continuous Services in Disaster/Emergency Situations
Public Service Continuity in the Eye of the Storm
The Case of the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Centre4
Background
Preparations
Loss and Damage
Recovery Efforts
Continuity Planning for the Future
Institutionalizing Public Service Continuity Planning in the Philippines
Conclusions
References
11 Pandemic and Inclusive Governance
Introduction
Building the Context
Key Policy Principles
Information and Communication
Community-Driven Solutions
Structural Integration
COVID-19: Conceptualizing Inclusive Governance
Assessment of Domains: Challenges and Measures
Rural
Challenges
Measures
Challenges
Measures
Challenges
Measures
Urban
Challenges
Measures
Challenges
Measures
Access to Welfare: Institutional Restructuring
Concluding Remarks: Empowering Individuals and Capacity-Building to Address Exclusion and Pandemic-Induced Challenges
References
12 Sustainable Strategies for Conservation of Water Resources: A Critique
Per Capita Water Availability in India
Goals of the National Water Mission
No Water Management in Smart City Features
Steps Toward Water Smart Cities
Success Stories
A Water-Secure Village
Saving India´s Lifeline: Why Rivers Need Trees
Conclusion
References
13 Community Resilience and Chronic Flood in Imphal City
Introduction
History of Flood
Seasonal Flood and Risk
Imphal City
Socioeconomic Indicators
Community Resilience
Flood in Imphal City
Resilience and Community Response
Conclusion
References
Website Visited and Retrieved Information
14 Disasters in Sundarbans and Ecological Refugees to Kolkata: A Missing Action Plan
Introduction
Climate Refugees, Disaster Migration: Where Are We Headed?
Sundarbans: A Unique Ecosystem
Kolkata: The Precariously Placed State Capital
The Present Framework or Is There One?
The Glasgow Conference 2021 (COP-26) and Its Takeaways
Harnessing the Indian Legal Framework
Conclusion: Management and Mitigation
References
15 A Study of Animal Behavior and Natural Disasters
Background
Introduction
Definition of Animal (pasu)
Types of Animals
Forecast of Natural Disasters by Animals
For Services They Rendered Inadvertently, Animals Were Protected
Animals and Birds Found in Ancient Literature
Name of Animals as an Epithet to Deities
Conclusion
References
Primary
Secondary
Dictionary and Encyclopedia
16 Inter-agency Coordination in Disaster Management
Introduction
Explanations Behind the Disappointment in the Context of Inter-Agency Coordination: A Perspective from J&K and Orissa
Solutions for Work on the Coordination Among Different Institutions at Various Levels are as per the Following: A Viewpoint fr...
Conclusion
References
17 Coastal Resilience and Urbanization Challenges in India
Introduction
Study Area
Data and Methodology
Coastal Settlements
Coastal Livelihoods
Coastal States of India
The Western Coast Region
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Goa
Karnataka
Kerala
The Eastern Coast Region
Tamil Nadu
Puducherry
Andhra Pradesh
Odisha
West Bengal
Metro Cities, Class I and Class II Towns in the Coastal Area
Processes of Coastal Urbanization
Colonization and Coastal Urbanization
The Port Cities in the Region
Settlement
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ)
Flood, Cyclones, and Other Events
Conclusions
References
18 E-governance-Based Disaster Mitigation Strategies
A Catalytic Role for ICT-Based Services in Disaster Mitigation
Development Disaster Dichotomy
Knowledge, Innovation, and ICT Tools: Creating Public Awareness
Application of E-Governance in Disaster Management and Disaster Risk Reduction (Pre-, During, and Post-Disaster Periods)
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
Application of Geographic Information System in Disaster Management
Emerging Technologies and Disaster Risk Management [DRM]
Institutional Apparatus for Disaster Management
Harnessing Technology for Better Disaster Management
Disaster and Community Participation
Conclusion
References
Websites
19 Building Resilience Against Nuclear Disaster
Introduction
Nuclear Disaster Risks: Causes and Concerns
Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants
Use of Nuclear Weapons in a War and Nuclear Proliferation Concerns in South Asia
Nuclear Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience Building Measures
India´s Nuclear Disaster Management Planning
Setting Up of a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in 2005 and National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) in 2016: A ...
Management of Nuclear Disasters in India and Building Resilience Against Nuclear Disaster
Role of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Govt. of India
Disaster Management Reforms Post-Fukushima and COVID-19 Pandemic
Role of DRDO in Handling of Nuclear Disaster
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and International Obligations
National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) (http://www.ndrf.gov.in/sites/default/files/13683%20-encl.pdf) for Handling of Nuclear...
Contemporary Challenges before Indian Administration and Emerging Debates in Disaster Mitigation Plans
Inadequate Medical Personnel for Treatment of Radioactivity-Exposed Patients during Disaster
Challenges of Climate Change in Coastal Areas and Rise in Protests and Resistance Movements
Emerging Debates on Use of Nuclear Energy
Emerging Trends in Building Disaster-Resilient Indian Cities
Conclusion
References
20 National Disaster Management Authority: Close Encounters with COVID-19
Introduction
Legal and Institutional Development of Disaster Management
Brief Introduction to the NDMA, NEC, and Biological Disasters Guidelines
Innocuous Presence of the NDMA During the Pandemic
Exploring NDMA´s Existential Significance
Comparability to FEMA in the USA
Conclusion - The Way Forward
References
21 Covid-19 Pandemic and Women´s Reproductive and Sexual Health
Gender-Differentiated Impact of the Pandemic
The Missing Link
Lessons from the Past
Impact of Disasters in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)
Impact on Reproductive and Sexual Rights
Mental or Emotional Health
Perceived Solutions in Sight
Engendered Recovery and Reconstruction in the Light of Covid-19: Recommendations
Conclusion
Annexure
References
22 Disaster Preparedness in the Context of Mt. Apo Natural Park in the Philippines
Introduction
The MANP-GMP 2013-2023
The UBT ADSDPP 2019-2023
The Davao Regional Development Plan 2017-2022
Conclusions and Recommendations
References
23 Resilient Cities, Vulnerable Communities: Disaster Governance in the Coastal Cities in Indonesia
Introduction
Critical Factors of Disaster Governance in Indonesia
Mitigating Climate Change Impacts in Coastal Cities
Disaster Risk Reduction: Capacity, Decentralization, and Collaboration
Conclusion
References
24 Coastal Settlement Vulnerability on Risk of Abrasion Disaster
Introduction
Disaster Vulnerability
Disaster Risk
Results and Discussion
Land Use Change
Residential Building: Physical Vulnerability
Residential Infrastructure Vulnerabilities
Economic Vulnerability Due to Abrasion
Abrasion Disaster Risk Analysis Study
Conclusion
References
25 Land Management and Disasters
Introduction
Land (Mis)Management and Land Lost
Loss of Land Due to Land Degradation and Desertification
Land Lost Due to Coastal Erosion
Urbanization and Informal Tenure
Land Mismanagement and Its Vulnerability to Disasters
Solutions and Recommendations
References
26 Fishers, Community Resilience, and Disaster Management: Learning from the Grassroots of Odisha, India
Introduction
The Profile of Indian Fishers
Disaster Management and Development
Understanding Community Resilience
The Research Setting
Public Policies for the Welfare of Fishers
Discussions
Way Forward
Conclusion
References
27 Migrant Urban Settlements and Disaster Management
Introduction
Vulnerability of Migrants in Urban Spaces
Vulnerability During Disaster Response: How to Build Back Better?
Community-Based Efforts in Disaster Risk Management: Lessons Learned
Conclusion
References
28 How Local Governments in Kerala Play Crucial Roles During Natural Calamities
Introduction
How the Panchayats Came to the Forefront
Conclusion
References
29 Animals in India´s Disaster Management Policies
Introduction
Disasters and Cattle Losses
Animals in National Policy Framework
Role of NDMA in Promoting Animal Welfare
Drawbacks and Way Ahead in Absorbing Animal Welfare Policies
Conclusion
References
30 Management of the Impact of Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm ``Fani´´ of 2019 in Odisha
Introduction
Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm (ESCS) Fani
Impacts of Cyclone Fani
Preparedness, Prevention, and Mitigation
Response and Relief
Recovery and Reconstruction
Conclusion
References
31 Disaster-Induced Vulnerabilities and Institutional Response in Indo-Nepal Tarai Region
Introduction
Case Study: Area and Methodology
Disaster-Induced and Other Vulnerabilities in Indo-Nepal Tarai Region
Institutional Structure and Mechanism
International Institutions
UNDRR (United Nation Disaster Risk Reduction)
CARE International
SAARC (South Asian Association Regional Cooperation)
National Institutions
GNK (Gram Niyojan Kendra) India
Rapid Response NGO (India)
Manav Seva Sansthan ``SEVA´´
Local NGOs
DEHAT (Developmental Association for Human Advancement) India
Maiti Nepal
Conclusion
References
32 Natural Hazard and Disaster Planning in the State of Oregon: Action and Wishful Thinking
Introduction: Natural Hazards and Disasters in the United States
Riverine and Coastal Flooding
Earthquakes and Tsunamis
Coastal Erosion
Landslides
Wildfires
Real-Time Dilemmas for Planning Officials
Dwelling in a Floodplain
Industrial Facility at or near a Seismic Fault
Coastal Vacation Home
Community in a Landslide-Prone Area
Dwelling on Forestland
The Oregon Approach
Conclusion
References
33 Policy Options for Minimizing Wildfire Damage in the Western USA
Introduction
The Geography of Western Wildfire
Policy Options and Examples of Large-Scale Wildfires
Camp Fire: Insufficient Preparation
Thomas Fire: Comprehensive Preparation Program
Bootleg Fire: Testing Forest Management Options
Conclusion: Challenges and Opportunities in Reducing Wildfire Risk
References
Part III: Emerging Technologies and Innovative Applications of AI in DRR
34 Introduction: Emerging Technologies and Innovative Applications of AI in DRR
Introduction
Conclusion
References
35 Citizen-Helper System for Human-Centered AI Use in Disaster Management
Introduction
Disaster Management and Information Needs
Computer-Assisted Information Processing for Disaster Management
Need for Human-AI Collaboration for Information Processing
Limitations of AI Technologies
Significance of Practitioner Involvement in System Design Beyond Evaluation
Human-Centered AI System Design: Illustration of Citizen-Helper
Data Collection
Data Storage
Data Annotation
AI Model Training and Analytics Services
Interactive Visualization
Use Cases
Disaster Response and Mitigation Using Social Media Data Analytics
Preparedness via Practitioner Exercises and Multimodal IoT Data Analytics
Challenges and Future Research Directions
References
36 Resilient Heritage Using Aerial and Ground-Based Multi-sensor Imagery
Introduction
Resilient Cultural Heritage Using Information from Space to Ground
Multichannel Image-Based Data Acquisition
Digital Heritage Cube Based on Positional Information
Information Acquisition from Historical Map
Application of Resilient Heritage Cube to Real Cases
Forest Fire at Gangwon-do
Improvements Through a Multichannel Approach
Earthquake in Gyeongju City
Improvements Through a Multichannel Approach
Knowledge Acquisition from Recent Images and Historical Maps
Conclusion
References
37 Ultralight Platforms to Coordinate First Responders and Communications
Introduction
Aerostats
Beamed Power Application
High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Vehicles
The Flying Leaf Architecture
Regulations and Support for Emergency Systems
Conclusions
References
38 Role of Social Media Imagery in Disaster Informatics
Introduction
Related Work
Resources, Models, and Systems
Datasets
Models and Systems
Models
Systems
Applications
Shared Tasks
Challenges and Open Research Issues
Conclusions
References
39 Remote Sensing Tools for Crisis Assessment in DRR
Introduction
Conceptual Framework for the Use of Remote Sensing in Crisis Response
UNOSAT Satellite Image Processing Services
Spatial Sampling
Spatial Sampling Methodology Matrix
Multidimensional Vulnerability Index
Nighttime Lights
Conclusion
References
40 Big Data and Multi-platform Social Media Services in Disaster Management
Introduction
Related Work
Architecture and Deployment of a Multi-platform Social Media API
Scenario I: Coordination of the Emergency Response in Volunteer Communities
Scenario II: Improving the Interaction between Emergency Services and Volunteer Communities
Scenario III: Enhancing the Situational Awareness of Emergency Services
Discussion of Challenges
Multi-platform Gathering and Management of Social Media Data
Mitigating Information Overload by Relevance Assessment and Message Grouping
The Context Dependency of Credibility and Information Quality Assessment
User-Centered Tailorability and Data Operations
Conclusion
References
41 Role of Microblogs in Relief Operations During Disasters
Introduction
Utilizing Social Media for Post-Disaster Resource Management: Opportunities and Challenges
Identifying Social Media Posts Informing About Needs of Resources or Availability of Resources
Understanding Social Media Posts That Inform About Need or Availability of Resources
Matching Resource Needs with Appropriate Availabilities
Conclusion
References
42 Role of Crisis Information Summarization Through Microblogs in Disaster Management
Introduction
Related Work
Dataset and Humanitarian Category Identification
Subevent Detection
Summarization Algorithm
Experimental Setup and Results
Evaluation of DEPSUB
Evaluation of SCC
Performance Evaluation of Class-Based Summarization
Performance Evaluation of High-Level Summary
Performance of Missing Person Information
Conclusion and Future Directions
References
43 Disaster Rescue Communication Using Mobile Devices, Social Media, and Artificial Intelligence
Introduction
Mobile Phones and Disasters
Mobile Alerts and Warnings
Integrating Mobile Health
Coordinating Search and Rescue
Challenges Faced When Mobile Phones Cannot Be Used
Mobile Infrastructure and Reliance
Accessibility and Overcoming Global Disadvantages
Mobile Phones and Social Media
Social Media and Getting Help
Social Media and Emergency Managers
Using People to Help Identify Meaningful Data
Crowdsourcing and Disasters
Rise in Using AI-Infused Information Technologies
Leveraging Textual Content
Leveraging Image Content
Geo-referencing Information
Network Data
Privacy Issues
Future Research on ICTs and Disasters
Conclusion
References
44 Role of Geolocation Prediction in Disaster Management
Introduction
Response Information Needs and Computational Tasks
Location Mention Prediction
Location Mention Recognition
Task Formulation
LMR-Specific Challenges
Literature Review
NER-Based Approaches with Domain Transfer
Gazetteer-Based Approaches
Learning-Based Approaches
Riding the Wave of Deep Learning Models
LMR Evaluation
Datasets
Evaluation Measures
Real Scenarios for Evaluation
Location Mention Disambiguation
Task Formulation
LMD-Specific Challenges
Literature Review
Learning-Based Models
Deep Learning Models
Collective Disambiguation
Evaluation
Datasets
Evaluation Measures
Challenges
Twitter Stream Challenges
Task-Specific Challenges
Future Directions
Conclusion
References
45 Remote Sensing for Flood Mapping and Monitoring
Introduction
Methodology
Paper Selection Criteria
Remote Sensing for Flood Mapping
Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery for Flood Mapping
Optical Imagery for Flood Mapping
Hybrid Satellite Imagery for Flood Mapping
Remote Sensing for Flood Monitoring
Conclusion
References
Part IV: GIS and Geospatial Studies
46 GIS and Geospatial Studies in Disaster Management
Introduction
Geospatial Tools
Application of Geospatial Technologies
Conclusion
References
47 Numerical Simulation and Modeling of Landslide-Related Hazards Using Geospatial Technology: Selected Case Studies from Indi...
Introduction
Study Area
Methodology and Input Data
Source Area Characterization
Kaliasaur
Baliyanala Landslide
Malari Avalanche Chute
Langsi Landslide
Betchora Headman Para and Lama Bus Station Area, Bangladesh
Model Input Data
Satellite Data Including Digital Elevation Model
Frictional and Shear Strength Parameters and Calibration of the Model
Result and Discussion
Interpretation of Simulation
Kaliasaur
Baliyanala Landslide
Malari
Langsi Landslide
Lama Bus Station Area and Betchora Headman Para Landslide, Bangladesh
Instrumental Validation of Shear Strength Parameters
Conclusion
References
48 Geomagnetic Signal Processing System for Pre-earthquake Anomaly Detection
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Precursor Detection
Direction Estimation
The Software Package
Input and Supplemental Data
Functionalities and Interface
Example of Output
Conclusion
References
49 Risk Mapping in Managing Flood Vulnerability in Disaster Management
Introduction
Methodology
Databases and Search Terms Used
Paper Selection Process
Analysis
Urban Region
Rural Region
Coastal Region
Riverine Region
Non-Traditional Data Sources
Social Media Indicators
Conclusion
Appendix
References
50 Cloudburst Events in the Indian Himalayas: A Historical Geospatial Perspective
Introduction
About the Indian Himalayan Ranges
Topography and Cloudburst Distribution over IHR
Cloudbursts Categorization and Historical Studies
Categorization of Cloudburst Events
Past Study of Mini-cloudbursts
Historical Cloudburst Events in IHR
Analytical Studies of Cloudburst Events in IHR
Remote Sensing and Geospatial Techniques
Simulation of Cloudburst Events
Hydrometeorological Approach
Present State of Activities on Account of Cloudbursts
Conclusion
References
51 Space Technology and Disaster Medicine NASA-/Landsat7-Based Retrospective Study of Haiti 2010 Cholera Epidemic
Introduction
Method
Results
Conclusion
References
52 Multiresilience Indicators Assessment in Seismic Zone V Area in Parts of Uttarakhand, India, Using Geospatial Technology
Introduction
Study Area
Methodology
Selection of Vulnerability Indicators
Environmental Indicators
Social Indicators
Economic Indicators
Environmental Indicators
Results and Discussion
Environmental Aspects
Social Aspects
Economical Aspects
Physical Aspects
Conclusion
References
Part V: Institutions and Governance
53 Introduction: The Importance of Good Governance in Disaster Management
Introduction
Conclusion
References
54 Building Resilience and Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM): Experiences and Lessons from Communities in the P...
Introduction: Understanding the Philippines´ Vulnerability to Hazards
From Emergency Response to Building Community Capacity for Risk Management and Resiliency to Disaster
Building People´s Resiliency to Disaster Risk and Climate Change
Building People´s Capacities for Disaster Preparedness, Prevention, and Mitigation
Building Resiliency Through Disaster Preparedness, Sustainable Livelihoods, and Sustainable Housing
Building Local Resiliency and Food Security Through Sustainable Agriculture
Institutionalizing CBDRRM into Local Governance
Conclusion: Key Lessons in Understanding Resilience, Agency, and Social Transformation in the Context of CBDRRM Practices
References
Websites
Facebook Pages
Powerpont Presentations
55 Resilience Thinking in Disaster Governance
Introduction
Disaster Governance
Vulnerability, Resilience, and Resilience Thinking
Approaching Resilience: Rethinking Development
Resilience Thinking in Disaster Governance
Resilience Thinking in Disaster Governance of India
Conclusion
References
56 Migration and Its Impact on the Rural Economy During Covid-19
Introduction
Migration and Status of Agricultural Labor
Covid-19 and Rural Economy
Challenges of Migrant Laborer
Policy Implications
Conclusion
References
57 An Assessment of the Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Tasks of the Barangay (Village) Disaster Risk Reduction and Managem...
Background of the Study
Objectives of the Study
Related Literature
Disaster Prevention and Mitigation and Recent Advances
Research Methodology
Research Design
Statistical Tools
Research Environment
Respondents and Data Gathering
Summary of Findings
What Is the Level of Performance of the BDRRMCs Considering Disaster Prevention and Mitigation?
To What Extent Do the Independent Variables Explain the Variations in the Level of Performance of the BDRRMCs?
What Are the Issues and Concerns that Surfaced in Relation to the Level of Performance of the BDRRMCs Considering Disaster Pre...
Conclusion
Recommendation
To the Future Researchers
References
Books and Published Materials
Public Documents
Online Databases
58 Disaster Risk Reduction with Special Reference to 2018 Kerala Floods and Approaches to Reduce Flood Vulnerability at River ...
Introduction
Disaster Risk Reduction
Inadequate Flood Management Provisions in Planning
Lack of Master Plan for the Management and Control of Water Resources
Failure of the State in Bringing Legislation for Identifying and Demarcating Floodplains
Flood Hazard Map Not Complying with the Standard
Dearth of Rain Gauges and Flood Forecasting
Dam/Reservoir Management
Sand and Stone Quarrying, Construction Activities, and Deforestation
Encroachment of River Space
Shrinking Wetlands
Approaches to Reduce Flood Vulnerability at River Basin
Methods to Reduce Flood Vulnerability
Structural and Nonstructural Measures
Structural Measures
Nonstructural Measures
Conclusion
References
59 Evaluation of Reconstruction Practices
Introduction
Gujarat Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Policy: Livelihood Support Program
Damage and Loss Assessment
Livelihood Restoration in Gujarat
Needs of Vulnerable Population
Quantum of Loss
Industry
Post Disaster Assistance for Industrial Units
Role of NGO
Kerala
Uttarakhand Floods 2013: Impact on Livelihoods
Nature of Uttarakhand Disaster: Natural or Man-Induced?
Structural and Regional Imbalance
The ``Sustainable´´ Alternative
Fani Cyclone: Loss to Livelihood
Damage and Loss to Fishery Sector
Cyclone Recovery
Recovery Strategy
Resilient Livelihoods
Livelihood Support
Strategies of Livelihood Restoration and Promotion
Types of Assistance
Individual Cash grants
Material Assistance
Short-Term Income Generating Activities
Public Works Employment Schemes
Community Block Grants
Conclusion
References
60 Response to Disaster Challenges of Senior Citizens: Trajectories of Building Resilience
Introduction
Vulnerability of Senior Citizens During Disaster
Review of Literature
The Rationale
Objectives
Method
Results and Interpretations
Conclusion
References
61 Local Governance in India During a Pandemic: A Case for Granting Agency to Municipal Governments
Introduction
Rise of Independent Urban Local Governance in India: From Constitutional Oblivion to Existence
COVID-19 and the Role Played by Municipalities in Pandemic Management
Challenges Faced by Municipalities During the Pandemic: Structural Fault Lines Drawn to the Fore
Need for Granting Agency to Local Governments: A Key Lesson Learnt from ULB´s Pandemic Management in India
Conclusion
References
62 Disaster Risk Reduction Through Waterlogging Prevention in (Southwestern) Bangladesh
Introduction
Bangladesh and Waterlogging
Waterlogging in the Southwest Region of Bangladesh
Causes of Waterlogging
Extent
Implications: Poverty Pockets
Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise (SLR) to Worsen Waterlogging
Prevention Strategies for Risk Reduction to Waterlogging
Institutional, Policy, and Regulatory Framework
Relief and Rehabilitation
Structural/Physical Interventions
Projects and Programs
Success and Failures
Conclusion
References
63 Disaster Management in Jammu and Kashmir: Tracing the History of Relief and Rehabilitation Amidst Destruction
Introduction
Part I
Disasters in Jammu and Kashmir
Earthquakes
Landslides
Snow Avalanches, Snow Storm, and Snow Fall
Flash Floods
Part II
Institutional Mechanism for Disaster Management in Jammu and Kashmir
National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) and State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF)
Part III
2014 Floods in Jammu and Kashmir
Relief and Rehabilitation
Providing Safe Passage to the Affected Population
Food and Other Supplies
Water Treatment Plants, Drinking Water Supplies, and Medical Assistance
Telecommunication, Electricity Connectivity, and Fuel Stocks
Road Communication, Restoration of Bank Facilities
Ex Gratia Amount to the Victims
Discussion and Conclusion
References
64 Role of Local Governments in Disaster Management
Introduction
Insights from Literature on the Role of Local Governments in Disaster Management
Objective, Methodology, Study Area
India´s Institutional Architecture for Managing Disasters
International Collaboration and Leadership
Legal Provisions for the Role of Local Governments
Disaster Management Act of the Government of India
State Disaster Management Policy
Case Study of Odisha
Disaster Profile of Odisha
Disaster Management in Odisha
Gaps and Suggestions
Separate Department for Disaster Management
Village and Panchayat Disaster Management Committee
Panchayat Disaster Response Fund
Panchayat Disaster Management Plan
Conclusion
References
65 Training Programs for Police in Disaster Risk Reduction
Introduction
Objectives
Importance of Involvement of Police in Disaster Risk Management
Training Need Analysis
Role of National Institute of Disaster Management in Training of Police
Role of Police Academy in Training of Police
Role of Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) in Training Police in DRR
Case Study
The Module of National Disaster Management Authority
Conclusion
Recommendations
References
66 Kerala Floods 2018: Impacts and Lessons Drawn
Introduction
Hazard and Vulnerability Profile of Kerala
Overview of Kerala Floods 2018
Causes of Floods
Damage and Loss Assessment
Post-Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA)
Response and Relief
Rehabilitation and Recovery
Lessons Learned
Relook into the Land Use Policy and Plan
Convergence of Damage and Loss Assessment Techniques
Women as Disaster Responders
Build Back Better
Role of Technology
Effective Dam Management
Protection of Ecosystem and Natural Resources
Empowerment of the Community
Conclusion
References
67 Resilience of MSMEs During the Pandemic
Introduction
MSMEs´ Risk and Resiliency: Conceptual Background
Methodology
Sampling
Case Study Results and Discussion
Respondent Profile
COVID-19: Hard Time Resulting in Risks and Disruptions
Response Mechanism of MSMEs: Crisis Analysis and Resilience
Conclusion
References
68 Studying Disasters Through Complexity Theory
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Complexity Theory
Power Law Distribution
Korean Case of Power Law Distribution
Korea Disaster Data
Method to Derive the Coefficients of Power Law Distribution
Program Implementation
Results
Conclusion
References
69 Systemic Disaster Risk and Response Management
Introduction
Evolution of Systemic Approach for Disaster Risk Management
Understanding Risk in Line with Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Black Swan and Cascading Disasters
Normal Accident and Systemic Approach in Safety Science
Understanding the Features of Systemic Disaster Risk for Response Management
Concept of Systemic Disaster Risk
Notions of Risk Types for Systemic Response Management
Multi-dimensional Systemic Response Framework
Identify Risk Management Flow
Develop Strategic Response Map Using Risk Management Flow
Develop a Multi-dimensional Emergency Plan Using RMF and SRM
Conclusion
References
70 Policy Change in the Wake of Major Disasters
Introduction
A Conceptual Framework for Policy Change in the Wake of Major Disasters
Policy Change, Window of Policy, and Focusing Events
KL´s Policy Change After Disaster (PCAD) Model
Public Need
Problem Identification
Political Leadership
Administrative Effort
Major Policy Change
Public Need
Problem Identification
Political Leadership
Administrative Effort
Major Policy Change
Public Need
Problem Identification
Political Leadership
Administrative Effort
Major Policy Change
Policy Implications
Conclusion
References
Part VI: Smart Cities and Technological Innovations for Disaster Management
71 Smart Cities and Technological Innovations Towards Disaster Resilience
Introduction: Understanding ``Smart,´´ ``Unsmart,´´ or ``Smart Enough´´ Cities (The Connect with Disaster Management)
Is There Greater Resilience Against Disasters in Smart Cities?
Which Cities Would Be ``Smart Enough´´ for Disaster Prevention?
Conclusion
References
72 Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19 in Tehran via Technologies in Smart Cities
Introduction
Smart City Dimensions and Its Technological Applications
Applications of Smart City Technologies Throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic
Smart City Technologies´ Application in the World to Mitigate COVID-19
Adoption of Smart City Technologies in Tehran Prior to the Advent of COVID-19
Application of Smart City Technologies in Tehran Throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic
Challenges of Adopting Smart City Technologies in Tehran
Conclusion
References
73 Therapeutic Role of Arts and Crafts in Post-disaster Resilience Building in India
Introduction: Healing and the Arts and Crafts
Post-disaster Recovery Through Visual Arts
Case Studies of Visual Arts from India
Madhubani Paintings of Bihar
Pattachitra Paintings, Odisha
A Brief Account and Role of Other Traditional Indian Paintings in Disaster Mitigation
Warli Paintings
Phad Paintings of Rajasthan
The Case of Buddha Paintings from Leh-Ladakh Region
Concluding Remarks: Building Resilience and Policy Advocacy
Appendix 1
References
74 Enhancing the Smartness of the ``Smart City´´ Concept: A Critical Review for a Better Conceptualization
Introduction
Literature Review
Review of the Concept
Meaning
Definitions
Discussion: Enhancing the Meaning of the Concept of ``Smart City´´
The Importance of Incorporating the ``Disaster Resilience´´ Aspect When Defining the Term
The Importance of Incorporating the ``Ethical Aspect´´ When Defining the Term
Conclusion
References
75 Disaster-Resilient Smart Cities Inclusive and Pro-poor
Introduction
Development of Smart City
Disaster Resilience: An Overview
Smart City Mission: A New Developmental Context
Need for Disaster Resilience in Smart Cities
Disaster Preparedness and Challenges in Indian Smart City Context
Smart City: An Inclusive Ideology
Underprivileged Urban: Plan Smart with Sustainability for All
Smart City: A Representation for the Underprivileged
Social Inclusion for Underprivileged
Access and Affordability for All
Disaster Preparedness for Underprivileged: Universal Model
Disaster Preparedness for Underprivileged: Indian Model
Conclusion
References
76 Disaster Governance and Policy for Dhaka: Building a Smarter City
Introduction
Disasters, Policies, Governance, and Analysis
Actions for Improvement and Conclusion
References
77 Disaster Management Plan for Libraries Located in Cyclone-Prone Areas in India
Introduction
Library and Its Structure
Disaster Management Plan
Preparation Before the Cyclone Struck
Impact of the Cyclone on the Library
Post-Cyclone Responses and Recovery Efforts
Realization and Lessons Learned
Conclusion
References
78 Reflections of Disasters in Indigenous Arts: The Patuas in India
Introduction
Indigenous Art and Agency
Indigenous Art, Epistemologies, Resistance in the Eurocentric Imposition of Anthropocene
An Indigenous Understanding of Disasters
Expressing Disaster in Indigenous Art: The Patuas of India
Conclusion
References
79 An Integrated Approach Toward Smart and Resilient Cities
Introduction
Evolution of ``Smart City´´ Concept
Evolution of ``Resilient City´´ Concept
Integrated Approach Toward ``Smart and Resilient City´´
Case of Guwahati, India
Case of Kathmandu, Nepal
Case of Beijing, China
Case of Surabaya, Indonesia
Case of Takamatsu, Japan
Key Takeaway Lessons
Toward Integrated ``Smart and Resilient City´´ Concept
Relevance of Soft Assets in Creating Smart and Resilient Cities
Fundamental Level in Society
Increasing Rapidity at City Level
Adaptation and Transformation at Community Level
References
Part VII: Media and Communication
80 Introduction: Taking Media and Communication on Board in Disaster Management
Disaster as a Subject of Study
Disaster Management Initiatives
Bangladesh
India
Japan
Sri Lanka
USA
European Union
References
81 Covid-19 Communication Strategies in India: An Analysis Using Social Amplification Risk Framework (SARF)
Introduction
Risk Communication
Risk Communication Approaches
Risk Communication Framework
Social Amplification Risk Framework (SARF)
Covid-19: Communication Strategies in India
Institutional Mechanism
Risk Communication Strategy
Mass Media: Print, Television, and Radio
Social Media
Use of Social Media for Risk Communication: Challenges
Discussion and Conclusion
References
82 Keep Me Safe from Cyclones: Community Radio and Disaster Campaign in the Coastal Areas of Bangladesh
Introduction
Cyclones and Evacuation in Bangladesh
Cyclone Warning Campaigns and Peoples´ Responses
Study Design and Community Radio Studied
Results and Findings
Community Preparedness, Evacuation, and Safety
Community Radio Intervention: Campaign Strategies for Preparedness Activities
Safety from Cyclone and the Community Radio
Community Radio and Capacity Building
Discussion
Conclusion
References
83 Interrogating the Role of Environmental Journalists in the Disaster Context
Introduction
Environmental Journalism and Disaster Communication
Environmental Journalism in Sri Lanka
Disaster Reporting in Sri Lanka: Two Cases of Sri Lankan Disasters
Drought in Sri Lanka
Floods in Sri Lanka
Identifying Misconceptualizations and Gaps
Conclusion and Implications
References
84 Post-Disaster Suffering: Amphan Cyclone in East Coast on India
Introduction
Cyclonic Storm Amphan Hits the States of East Coast of India
Objective, Study Area, and Methodology of the Study
Original Experiences on the Sufferings and Distress of the Survivors
Food, Nutrition, and Livelihood
Loss of Shelter
Physical and Emotional Well-Being of the Affected People
Grief-Focused Media Reports of Post-Amphan Scenario
Conclusion and Recommendation
References
85 Outreach Strategies Adopted by Corporate Organizations for Flood-Affected Communities in India
Introduction
People and Floods
Methodology
Outreach Strategies Adopted
I Brand Presence and Inventory Association Frame Outreach by Corporates
II Donations maximise Outreach, and Inventory forms the core of relief
III Digitally Enabled Outreach
Role and Scope (Brands, Outreach, and Flood Management Cycle)
Conclusions
References
86 An Ethical Code for Disaster Journalism
Introduction
Pre-Disaster Phase
Disaster Phase
Post-Disaster Phase
Ethics of Disaster Reporting
COVID-19 and Pandemic Reporting
A COVID Risk Assessment Plan for Media
A Protocol for ``Inclusive´´ Media Reporting
An SOP for Reporting on Climate Disasters
Conclusion
References
87 Capacity Building Through Stakeholder Training in Media and Communication for Effective Disaster Management
Introduction
Role and Scope of Capacity Building in Managing Disasters
Why Those in Charge of Disaster Management Need to Learn About Media and Communication?
Research Insights from the Survey
Information and PR Officials
Media Persons
Policy Makers
Information Overload in Crisis Times
Ethical Discourse: Media´s Responsibility
PCI Norms on Reporting on Natural Calamities
Diminishing Trust Levels
Social Media: The Game Changer
Is Disaster Management Equivalent to Reputation Management?
Government´s Outline on Capacity Building Strategy
Preparing Stakeholders in Disaster Communication
Defining Stakeholders
Users of the Curriculum
Training Approach
Faculty: Who Could Ideally Undertake Such Capacity Building Training Programs
Objectives of the Proposed Course Curricula
Recommended Modules: An Outline
Information/Public Relations (I&PR) Officers of the Central and State Governments
Core Modules
Skill Enhancement Modules
Pedagogy
District Commissioners/Civil Servants
Pedagogy
Faculty
BDOs/Panchayat Heads
Pedagogy
Faculty
Civil Defense, Police, and Para-military Personnel
Pedagogy
Faculty
NGOs/CSOs
Pedagogy
Faculty
Media Personnel
Core Modules
Pedagogy
Faculty
Conclusion
References
88 Media and Communication in Disaster Risk Reduction
Introduction
Need for Appropriate Media and Communication
Types of Media: Effective Advances in Communication Technologies
Conceptual Framework
Disaster Communication Via Proper Media Channels
Role of Information Dissemination in Disasters
Media and Tools for Dissemination of Messages
Need of the Hour: Effective Electronic Media
Challenges and Limitations
Positive Outcomes
Negative Outcomes
Conclusion
Bibliography
89 Disaster Communication and Trust
Introduction
Disasters in Vietnam and the Role of Media
Disaster Communication: Case Study
Trust
Conclusion
References
90 Social Media as a Catalyst in Disaster Risk Governance
Introduction
Social Media as a Catalyst for Disaster Risk Governance
Cases of Social Media Use During Disasters
Australian Bush Fires
Kerala Floods
COVID Response
Challenges of Governing Social Media
Discussion and Glance at Policy
Why We Need a Social Media Policy in India
Areas of Policy Intervention
Conclusion
References
91 Pandemic and Brand Communication in India
Introduction
Brand Communication During Pandemic
Brand Collaborations During Pandemic
Corporate Social Responsibility and Brands
Digital Presence of Brands
Conclusion
References
Journal Article
Books
Book Chapter
Online Blog/Website
Report
92 Disaster Management and Communication Technology: The Prospect of Social Media
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Media, Disaster, and Communication Technology
Prospect of Social Media
Reachability
Multiple Channels of Communication
Conclusion
References
93 Social Media and Communication for Older Adults During Disasters: A Narrative Study of Aging Population in Kolkata, West Be...
Introduction
Literature Review
Responding to Common Needs and Problems of the Elderly
Excerpts from Case Studies
Discussion
Conclusion
References
94 Pandemic Survival Strategy of Hindi Film Studios: The Case Study on Yash Raj Films
Introduction
Yash Raj Films (YRF) Business Model
The OTT Myth
YRF Survival Strategy
Conclusion
Conglomeration Is a De-Risk Strategy
References
95 Media and Disaster Reporting: An Analysis of Kashmir Floods 2014
Introduction
Understanding Kashmir Floods
Media and Disaster Reporting
Review of Literature
Research Design
Data Interpretation
Discussion
Conclusion
References
96 Role and Impact of Visual Imagery During Crisis
Introduction
Visual Perception
The Observer, the Storyteller, and the Aide
The Observer
The Storyteller
The Aide
Conclusion
References
97 Government Information Dissemination Structures and Processes in Disasters
Introduction
Government Information Dissemination Structures and Processes in Disasters
India´s Disaster Management Information Structures and Processes
Disaster Communication During the Initial Phase of the Covid-19 Pandemic in India
Conclusion
References
Websites
98 Reinventing Fashion Industry to Sustain Itself During Covid-19
Introduction
Pandemic Threatened the Existence of Certain Segments
Reinventing Fashion Brands: Altruism Versus Brand Building
Strategy for Survival
The Essentials
The Reinvention
From Physical to ``Phygital´´ Fashion Weeks
E-Commerce, Social Commerce, and Digital Stores
Support the Artisans and Craftspersons
Shift to a Seasonless Fashion or Trans-Seasonal Fashion
See Now Buy Now
Collaborations
Conclusion
References
Instagram
99 Radio for Disaster Management
Introduction
Disasters Becoming More Frequent and Fierce
Role of Radio in Disaster Mitigation
All India Radio as the Premier Disaster Management Radio Communicator in India: The Kosi Floods of 2008
Good Radio Practices and Future Needs for Disaster Management Radio Communication
Radio in the Times of Global Health Emergencies: Lessons from Covid-19
Media as an Equal Partner in Disaster Mitigation
Conclusion
References
Part VIII: Sociology of Disasters
100 Introduction: Sociology of Disasters
Introduction
References
101 Disaster Preparedness, Disability Awareness, and Disability Inequality: A Study of Hong Kong´s Property Management Sector
Introduction
Disaster Preparedness and Disability
Are PWDs in Property Managers´ Minds in Disaster Preparedness?
Lack of Disability Awareness in the Property Management Sector
Organizational, Procedural, and Protocol Inadequacies
Reasons Behind Disability Inequity in Disaster Preparedness
Lack of Consideration of PWDs´ Needs
Ambiguous Responsibility of Property Managers
Lack of Disability Training and Knowledge
No Involvement of PWDs in the Planning and Management of Disaster Preparedness
Moving Toward More Inclusive Disaster Planning and Management
Concluding Remarks
References
102 Indigenous Knowledge and Practices of the Ethnic and Small Island Communities in Disaster Management
Introduction
Asia-Pacific Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Bangladesh Coastal Islands and the Haors
Conclusion
References
103 Combating Domestic Violence During Lockdown of COVID-19 Pandemic
Introduction
Global Experiences of DV During COVID-19 Lockdown
Prevalence During COVID Lockdown
Vulnerability to Intimate Partner Violence
Triggers for DV During COVID-19
Help-Seeking Behavior of Domestic Violence Victims and New Barriers
Management of the Domestic Violence During Lockdown
A Global Scan of the Management of Domestic Violence
Management of Domestic Violence During Lockdown in India
Management of Domestic Violence During Lockdown in Kerala
Guidelines for Responsible Functionaries to Prevent and Manage Domestic Violence During Lockdowns
Conclusion
References
104 Food Security in India During the Pandemic: Future Learning for Ensuring Zero Hunger
Introduction
Pandemic and Disaster
The Food Supply Chain
Government Initiatives
Disasters and the Right to Food
Critical Role of the Public Distribution System(PDS) in any Disaster
Corruption and the Governance of Natural Disasters
The Lessons for Ensuring Zero Hunger in Future
Conclusion
References
105 Managing Teaching and Learning at Higher Education Institutions During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Introduction
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Higher Education
Challenges to Online Teaching
Effect of Online Teaching on the Workload of Lecturers
Concerns About Online Teaching
What Motivated Online Teaching
Were They Happy Doing It?
Use of Modern Technology in Online Teaching
Did the Employer/Family Supported Them on Online Teaching?
Was Online Teaching Successful?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Teaching
Strategies to Enhance the Quality of Online Teaching
Conclusion
References
106 The Role of Traditional Institution of Governance in Disaster Risk Reduction in Eastern Himalayas
Introduction
Formal Institutional Arrangement of Disaster Management in Darjeeling Hills
Samaj
Samaj and Its Role in Disaster Management
Samaj and Covid-19 Pandemic
Conclusion
References
107 Preserving Cultural Heritage and Psychosocial Support After the Great East Japan Earthquake: An Interdisciplinary Approach...
Introduction
Key Terms: Psychosocial Support, Resilience, and Heritage Preservation
``Big´´ Heritage, ``Small´´ Heritage: Which Is Important?
Salvaging ``Small´´ Heritage and Psychosocial Support: The Case of Miyagi Prefecture
Activating ``Small´´ Heritage as Psychosocial Support
Activating ``Small´´ Heritage: Collaboration with Psychologists
Activating ``Small´´ Heritage: Building Wide-Ranging Social Capital
Activating ``Small´´ Heritage: A Town Confronts Diaspora and Negative Heritage
Conclusion
References
108 Community Participation Strategies in Nepal´s Disaster Management
Introduction
Disaster Policy and Governance
Disaster, Liminality, and Communitas
Field and Methodology
Spatial and Cultural Diversities
Revisiting Community Participation
Gender Concerns
Challenges of Disaster Management
Concluding Observations
References
109 Exploring the Social Effects of Disasters: Causes, Consequences, and Mitigation
Introduction
Mitigation of Adverse Social Effects of Disasters: A Chronological Perspective
Learning from the Past Disasters to Prepare for the Future
Disasters and Settlement Planning
Conclusion
References
Part IX: Disaster Law
110 Theoretical Foundations of Disaster Law: The Pillars and the Building
Introduction: The Idea of Disaster Law
History of the Growth of DL
Transition of DL from Supernatural Origin to Origin in Governance Decisions
Five Pillars of Disaster Law
Doctrine of Public Trust and Vicarious Liability
Equity Brought Public Trust as Fly Wheels of DL
Principle of Subsidiarity
Transdisciplinarity
International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
Conclusions
References
111 The Pandemic and Its Effect on the Power Sector in India
The COVID-19 Disaster and the Scenario of Green Energy in India
Problems Faced by the Energy Sector During Covid-19
Possible Actions Taken by the Government
Response of the Power Sector Regulators to the Pandemic Disaster
Ministry of Power (MoP)
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
Rise in the Renewable Energy Sector During Covid-19
Conclusion
Suggestions
References
112 Local Community Leaders Operating in Disaster Recovery
Introduction
Disaster Management in Australia
The Role of Neighborhood Centers in Disaster Management
Shared Responsibility
Personal Preparation Guide for Community Leaders
Community Disaster Fatigue
Discussion
Conclusion
References
113 Post-Disaster Dispute Resolution: A New Zealand Case Study
Introduction
The Aotearoa New Zealand Insurance Context
Why Efficient and Effective Insurance Dispute Resolution in Post-Earthquake Canterbury Failed
Dispute Resolution Framework not set up for Disasters
Delay
Addressing the Issues: Too Little Too Late?
Residential Advisory Service
Greater Christchurch Claims Resolution Service
Canterbury Earthquakes Insurance Tribunal
High Court Earthquake List
Conclusion: Learning from Aotearoa New Zealand´s Mistakes
References
114 The Need for Health Emergency Law in India
Introduction
What Is Right to Health?
Right to Health in India
Right to Health During COVID-19 in India
Conclusion
References
115 Making Those Accountable for Man-Made Natural Disasters: A Critical Appraisal of the Law with Special Reference to Sri Lan...
Introduction
Human Activities and Their Adverse Impact on the Environment
Human Activities and Man-Made Disasters
Liability Regime Under Environmental Law
``Polluter Pays´´ Principle and Liability for Environmental Harm
Possibility of Using the ``Polluter Pays´´ Principle Concerning Man-Made Natural Disasters
Suggestions at Holding Those Accountable for Man-Made Natural Disasters
Conclusion
References
116 The Use of Earth Jurisprudence Against Anthropogenic Marine Environmental Disasters in Sri Lanka
Introduction
Earth Jurisprudence: Philosophical and Theoretical Origins and Development
Elements of Earth Jurisprudence and Their Relevance for the Protection of Oceans
Legal Personhood and Rights of Nature
Great Jurisprudence
Community Ecological Governance
Restorative Justice
The MV X-Press Pearl Disaster and Earth Jurisprudence
The Role of the Contemporary Marine Environmental Protection Laws in Sri Lanka in the Protection of Intrinsic and Relational V...
The Constitution
Marine Pollution Prevention Act, No. 35 of 2008
Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Act, No. 02 of 1996
Earth Jurisprudence in Other Jurisdictions
Constitutional Recognition: Ecuador
Legislative Recognition: New Zealand
Judicial Recognition: India
Recommendations
Judicial Recognition
Legislative Recognition
Constitutional Recognition
Conclusion
References
117 Disaster Management Laws: International and Indian Perspectives
Introduction
International Norms on Disaster Management
Three-Tier Disaster Management Authorities
Conclusion
References
118 Paradigm Shift in Disaster Management: Bangladesh Experience
Introduction
Global Scenario
Bangladesh Scenario
Best Practices in Disaster Management
Community-Based Disaster Management
Conclusion
References
119 Comparative Analysis of Legal Framework for Disaster Management in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh
Introduction
Rationale for the Study
Research Methodology
Research Questions
Concept of Disaster and Disaster Management
The Status of Disaster Hazards in South Asian Region
The Comparative Analysis of the Disaster Management Law in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh
Pakistan
India
Bangladesh
Conclusion and Recommendations
References
Part X: International Law and Collaboration During Disasters
120 Introduction: International Law and Collaboration During Disasters
References
121 Legal Aid Services for Disaster-Induced Gender-Based Violence in Coastal Bangladesh
Introduction
Context
Methodology
Understanding the Target Community: Housing and Socio-economic Condition
Rights-Based Approach, GBV, and Natural Disaster
Rights-Based Approach as a Theory
How Natural Disaster Affects GBV: Theories and Experiences from Around the World
Rights-Based Approach to GBV in Disasters
The National Legal Framework: The Role of Law and Policy in Discussions on Inequality in Terms of Gender, Sex, and Locality
The Disaster Management Act 2012
National Plan for Disaster Management (NPDM) 2016-2020
Standing Regulatory Orders 2010
International Agreements and State Implementation
Common Gaps and Challenges in GBV Frameworks During Disasters
Access to Legal Support for GBV Protection During Disasters: Case Studies from Bangladesh
Lack of Participatory Process
No Holistic View
Lack of Transparency and Accountability
Not Producing Sustained Results
How Lack of Legal Aid Services Affects Disaster Induced Gender-Based Violence
Equality
Transparency
Accountability
Empowerment
Conclusion
References
122 Doctrine of Executive Immunity in Times of COVID-19: Experience from Indonesia
Introduction
The Nonnatural Disaster Under Indonesian Laws and COVID-19
State Emergency v Public Health Emergency
Executive in Times of COVID-19
Executive Powers During Public Health Emergency
Executive Immunity During Public Health Emergency
Courts on Executive Immunity
Conclusion
References
123 International Law, Human Rights, and Public Health Emergencies During Disasters: A Developing Country Perspective
Introduction
International Law, Human Rights, and Public Health Emergencies in Developing Countries
Tackling the Human Rights Violations and Public Health Emergencies During Disasters Through the Duty of Solidarity
Pre-Public Health Emergencies: Duty of Solidarity Before Emergency
Post-Public Health Emergencies: Duty of Solidarity After Emergency
Conclusion: Ensuring Human Rights to Health During Public Health Emergency in a Developing Country
References
124 The International Law Commission and International Disaster Law
Introduction
The Drafting History of DAPPED
The Overview of DAPPED
The Normative Framework of DAPPED
A (Long?) Walk to Codification
ANNEX: Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters
References
125 Duty of the State to Protect Internally Displaced Persons in the Event of Disaster
Introduction
Disaster Displacement and Its Reality
The Reality
Special Needs of Displaced Persons due to Post-displacement Vulnerability
Policy Options for Disaster Displacement
Internal Displacement
The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement
Other Regional Instruments
International Disaster Response Law (IDRL)
The Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disaster
Protection of the Victims of Disasters in the Draft Articles
Obligation of the States
Human Rights and Disaster Displacement
International Cooperation and Assistance
Conclusion
References
126 Managing Disasters in Bangladesh: Legislative Framework and Judicial Developments
Introduction
Constitutional Framework for Disaster Management in Bangladesh
Scope for Emergency Power
Impact of International Legal Instruments
Legislative Framework for Disaster Management in Bangladesh
Disaster Management Law
Meteorology Law
Taxation Laws
Aviation Laws
Judicial Approach in Managing Disasters
Conclusion
References
127 Persons with Disabilities in COVID 19: Bangladesh Perspective
Introduction
Disability and COVID-19 Pandemic
Development of Human Rights-Based Disability Models
Development and Protection of Disability Rights in Bangladesh
Pre-pandemic Global and Regional Disaster Guidance
Disability-Inclusive COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Plans
Disability-Inclusive Pandemic Management Framework in Bangladesh
Implementation of Disability Targeted COVID-19 Strategies in Bangladesh
Healthcare
Basic Necessities, Housing, and Education
Employment
Social Security Measures
Intersectional PWD and Their Vulnerability
Findings
Conclusion
Reference
128 International Human Rights Law (IHRL) in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Planning
Introduction
Brief Overview of DRR and IHRL Framework
DRR: From Reactive to Proactive Approach
IHRL Framework
Right-Holder and Duty-Bearer Concept
Right to Life: An All-Encompassing Right
Interface Between Disasters and Human Rights
Contributions of IHRL in DRR Planning
Conclusion
References
129 Nuclear Disaster: Assessing the Compliance of Global Nuclear Safety Regime in Bangladesh
Introduction
Compliance of International Safety Law in Bangladesh
Other Potential Areas to Address
Concerns Relating to Environmental Safety
Conclusion
References
130 COVID-19 Pandemic and Health for All
Introduction
COVID-19 Pandemic as a Disaster
COVID-19, Public Health, and Vulnerable People
Vulnerable People´s Right to Health During Pandemic Under International Law
State Obligations Toward the Right to Health During COVID
States´ Failure to Uphold Vulnerable People´s Right to Health During COVID-19
Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Quality Healthcare
Fulfilling Underlying Determinants of the Right to Health
States´ International Obligation to Assist
A Rights-Based Approach to Disaster Management During COVID
Conclusion
References
131 Climate Change and Disaster Management in Bangladesh
Introduction
Climate Change and Disaster Management Laws and Policies in Bangladesh
Climate Change
National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)
Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP)
The Climate Change Trust Fund Act 2010
Bangladesh Climate Change and Gender Action Plan, 2013
The Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100, 2018
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC)
Bangladesh Country Investment Plan for Environment, Forestry, and Climate Change (CIP-EFCC) 2016-2021
The Mujib Climate Prosperity Plan 2021
National Adaptation Plan of Bangladesh 2022 (Zero Draft)
Eighth Five-Year Plan (2020-2025)
Perspective Plan (2021-2041)
Disaster Management
Disaster Risk Management Laws and Policies
The Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD)
Cyclone Shelter Construction, Maintenance, and Management Policy 2011
Disaster Management Act 2012
Disaster Management Policy 2015
National Plan for Disaster Management 2021-2025
National Strategy on the Management of Disaster and Climate-Induced Internal Displacement 2019
Institutional Arrangement for Disaster Management
Bangladesh´s Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation
Institutional Linkage
Policy Gaps
Inadequate Knowledge Sharing
Lack of Mass Awareness and Mainstreaming
Conclusion
References
132 Disaster Displacement and International Refugee Law: Locating Legal Protections in the Context of Climate Change Migration
Introduction
DHD and the Analysis of IDMC Report 2022
DHD Population: Socioeconomic Impacts and Other Challenges to IRL
The Socioeconomic Impacts of DHD
DHD Terminology Challenges
Artificial Intelligence Fait Accompli and the Protection of the DHD People
DHD and Global Human Rights Frameworks (GHRF)
Fundamental Principles of IRL in DHD Scenarios
Contextualizing the IRL Response and the Universality of the Principle of Non-refoulement
Locating the Legal Protection Threshold of Global Compacts (GCs) in Complementing the Role of 1951 UNCSR with 1967 AP for the ...
UN Global Compact on Refugees
UN Global Compact on Migrants
HIIL and the Postulation of Protection Firewall Under CIL
Conceptualization of the Normative and Non-derogable Human Rights of DHD People
Ethical Dimensions of the IRL and the Future of the NDHR of the DHD People, CDMs, IDPs, and Climate Refugees Not Covered Under...
Legal Protections in the Context of Climate Change Migration
Conclusion
References
133 Protecting Civilians During Armed Conflicts: An Appraisal of States´ Obligations from an International Law Perspective wit...
Introduction
Legal Framework Governing Armed Conflicts
An Appraisal of Core Legal Principles Regulating Armed Conflicts
Difference of Regulation Based on Classification of Armed Conflicts
International Obligations of States for Protecting Civilians
Civilian Protection in International Armed Conflict Situations
Civilian Protection in Non-international Armed Conflicts
Armed Conflict of Sri Lanka
International Scrutiny of Sri Lanka´s State Obligations
Resolutions Adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on Sri Lanka
Sri Lankan Endeavors for Compliance with UNHRC Resolutions and the Challenges
Conclusion
References
134 Corporate Responsibility to Protect Human Rights: Evaluating the Legal Framework of Bangladesh in Light of International a...
Introduction
The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
History
Basic Principles
UNGPs in the Context of Disasters
Bangladesh´s Commitments Under International Law
The 2013 Rana Plaza Disaster
Making a Case for Corporate Responsibility Under the Legal Framework of Bangladesh in the Context of Disasters
Fundamental Rights Under the Constitution
Labor Laws
Environmental Laws
Disaster Management Laws
Conclusion
References
135 Humanitarian Relief in the Time of Covid: The Law and the Reality
Introduction
Secluded and Waiting: Issues of Access
International Humanitarian Law: A Way Out?
Conclusion
References
136 International Humanitarian Law to Address the State Responsibility for the Management of Civilian Casualties in Post-War S...
Introduction
Civilian Casualties as a Result of War
State´s Responsibility for the Protection of Civilian Property Under IHL
Nature of State Responsibility v Armed Forces´ Responsibility Under IHL
State Responsibility for Reparation Under IHL
Is Compensation Enough for Post-War Casualty Management as a Form of Reparation?
Burden Sharing Responsibility as a Logical Solution
A Change in Calculation of Compensation as a Solution
Conclusion
References
Part XI: Administrative Initiatives and Best Practices
137 Disaster Management: Administrative Initiatives and Best Practices
Introduction
Summary
References
138 Capacity Building at the Level of Community to Reduce the Risk of Natural Disasters: A Study on the Indian Scenario
Introduction
Review of Existing Frameworks on Community-Level Disaster Risk Resilience
Study Area, Objective, and Methodology
Analysis and Discussion
Institutional Setup to Manage Disasters at Local Level
Constraints at the Community Level in Managing Hazards
Mobilizing the Community for Disaster Preparedness
Disaster Risk Governance
Capacity Building as a Tool for Disaster Risk Reduction
Conclusion and Way Forward
Reference
139 Drought, Food Insecurity, and Gender Relations in Selected Districts of India
Introduction
Methodology
Drought Impacts and Household Risk Coping
Drought and Change in Household Occupations in Study Areas
Household Drought Coping and Consumption Strategy
Coping with Drought: Household Consumption Strategies
Conclusion and Policy Suggestions
References
140 Good Governance Strategies for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction
Introduction
Literature Review
Significance of Governance in Disaster Management
International Strategies for Disaster Governance and Risk Reduction
Case Study of Disaster Governance
The Current Mechanism for Disaster Management in India
Suggestions
Conclusion
References
141 Climate Change Disasters and Impact on Women in South Asia
Introduction
South Asia, Climate Change Disasters, and Gender: The Interplay
Theorizing Gender and Climate Change Disasters
Disaster Management Laws and Conventions: Need for a Gendered Approach
Missing Link
Way Forward: Conclusion
Recommendations
Limitations and Future Research
Annexure
References
142 Women and Domestic Violence During Covid-19 Pandemic in India
Introduction
Background of the Problem
Importance of Studying Disaster and Domestic Violence
Methodology
Analysis and Discussion
Commonalities
Findings
Recommendations and Conclusion
References
143 Response of Biological Disaster COVID-19 in Bangladesh
Introduction
COVID-19 in Bangladesh
Impact of COVID-19 in Bangladesh
Governance of COVID-19 in Bangladesh
Concluding Remarks
References
144 Unsung Climate Heroes: Women Protecting Land, Environment, and Livelihood in Odisha
Introduction
Methodology
The Paradox of Climate Change and Economic Development
The Need for Women´s Leadership Initiatives for Disaster Management
Women´s Resistance and a Quiet Politics of the Possible
Case 1: Women as the Friends of the Forest: The Communities of Nayagarh, Odisha
Case 2: Rural Women Protesting Against the Establishment of Pohang Steel Company (POSCO)
Case 3: Dongria Kondhs Protecting Niyamgiri as Their Identity and Spirituality
Implications
Conclusion
References
145 Creating Robust Infrastructure and Response Mechanism: Odisha Model of Disaster Management
Introduction
Institutional Response and Mechanism
Creating a Robust Infrastructure and Empowering Community for Disasters: Orissa Model (Natural Disaster)
Early Warning Dissemination System (EWDS)
Apada Mitra (Community Support Base)
Conclusion
Annexure A: Guidelines and Reports and Other Documents Released During Previous Years
Internet Sources
Reports
146 Flood, Livelihood, and Community Resilience: A Study from Barak Valley Region of Assam in Northeast India
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Socioeconomic Profile of the Flood-Affected Communities
Livelihood Issues of the Flood-Affected Communities
Importance of Community Resilience for the Livelihood of the Flood-Affected Communities
Conclusion
Appendix-I
References
147 Community Vulnerability and Disaster Risk Reduction at Sundarbans
Introduction
Storm Narrative
The Problem of Community Vulnerability and Community Resilience
Methodology
Climatic Conditions of Sundarbans Region
Community Vulnerability
Causes of Vulnerability
Disaster Management Plan, 2020-2021
Conclusion
References
Part XII: Cities and Urban Governance
148 Governance Is Affected by Individual to National Level: The Case of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in the Cit...
Introduction
Destruction of Rikuzentakata and Neighboring Towns
Individual and Local Community Response to the Disaster
Responses of Civil Society
Disaster Emergency FM Radio Station
Leadership of Municipality, Response, and Planning for the Reconstruction
Unique and Special Recovery/Reconstruction Plan with Inclusion
``Build-Back Better´´ - Rebuilding Rikuzentakata from Scratch
``Resilient City´´ Against Natural Disaster
``Inclusion and Accessibility´´
Strong Hope and Dream
Young Deputy Mayor
Supports by Well-Known Business Figures
International Community and Global Assistance
Global Appeal at Photo Exhibition
Amazing Gift from Singapore
TOMODACHI Initiative
Conclusion
References
149 Evaluation of Structural Reconstruction Practices: Housing Reconstruction
Introduction
Housing Reconstruction
Gujarat Earthquake, 2001 (Map 1)
Gujarat Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Policy
Community-Driven Housing Recovery
Assistance for Housing Recovery
Housing Reconstruction: Implementation Arrangements and Outcomes
Tax Concession to Industries in Kuchh
Priorities in Reconstruction
Public Private Partnership
Disaster as an Opportunity
Politics of Aid
Priorities in Reconstruction
Uttarakhand Floods, 2013: Pre-existing Vulnerability and Post-disaster Reconstruction (Map 2)
Kerala Floods, 2018 (Map 3, Table 2)
Fani Cyclone 2019 (Map 4)
Damage and Loss Assessment in Fani Cyclone
Damage to Housing
Resilient Housing
Suggestions
Conclusion
References
150 Vulnerability of Coastal Communities and Livelihoods Through the Experiences of Developmental Organizations: A Case Study ...
Setting the Context: Disaster Risk in Coastal Areas and Vulnerability
Methodology
Sample Selection
Study Area
Data Collection Process
Designing the Data Collection Tool
Conducting the Interviews
Analysis
Results
Vulnerability to Disaster Risks
Areas of Engagement of the Organization
Understanding Vulnerability and the Most Vulnerable Livelihoods
Understanding the Organizations´ Approach to Taking Measures for Reducing Vulnerability
Case Studies of Vulnerable Social Groups and Livelihoods in Kachchh District, Gujarat
The Foot Fishermen: Pagadiyas
The Saltpan Workers: Agariyas
The Pastoralists: Maldharis
Conclusion
References
151 Reimagining DRR in Urban Transformation: Confronting the Heterogeneity of Urban and Negotiations in Transforming Urban Lan...
Introduction
Urban DRR: Contestations and Challenges to Urban Risk Governance
Urban Spatial Inequalities and Urban Heterogeneity
Urban Intersectionality
Urban Risk
Urban Risk Governance and Urban DRR
DRR Towards Urban Transformation: Deliberations and Conclusion
References
152 Building Rights for Funding Housing Reconstruction: Mexico City´s After the 2017 Earthquake
Introduction
The Disaster and the Extent of the Damages
The Resources and their Sources
Land Value Capture and Building Rights
The First Public Policy Attempt
The Second Public Policy Initiative
The Additional Building Rights and Their Public Policy Pathway
Implementation and Numbers
Conclusive Remarks
References
153 Cultural Tangibles and Intangibles and Disaster Challenges: Narratives from Varanasi
Introduction
India: Land of Diverse Cultural Heritage (Tangibles and Intangibles) and Disaster Risks Challenges
National Policies on Conservation and Heritage Management and Disaster Risk Reduction in India: The Two Different Universes
Conservation and Heritage Management
Disaster Risk Reduction
Global Attempts
Attempts of Integration of the Two Universes, Still a Long Journey on Ground
Varanasi: The Ancient Lived City, at the Cusp of Tradition and Modernity
Challenges that Varanasi Faces Are Manifold: Two Kinds of Hazards: Natural and Human-Induced
Floods
Urbanization: Human-Induced Disaster
Encroachment of the Flood Plains and the River Bank
Loss of Sustainable Ecosystems
Massive Tourist Footfall
Possibilities and the Way Forward
Conclusion
References
154 Cities and Climate Change: Responding to the Impacts of Water-Related Disasters in Sri Lanka
Introduction
Disasters
Cities and Disasters: Obvious Links?
Water-Related and Climate Change-Induced Natural Disasters in Sri Lankan Cities
Floods
General Overview on Floods
Socioeconomic Impacts of Floods
Landslides
General Overview on Landslides
Socioeconomic Impacts of Landslides
Droughts
General Overview on Droughts
Socioeconomic Impacts of Droughts
Challenges in Water-Related Disaster Management
Challenges in Mitigation Stage
Challenges in Preparedness Stage
Challenges in Response Stage
Challenges in Recovery Stage
Environmentally Smart Solutions to Reduce Disaster Risk and Build Resilience
Improved Environmental Governance
Strengthened Urban Management with Integration, Inclusiveness, and Knowledge Sharing
Nature-Based Solutions (NbS)
Preparing to Combat Impacts of Climate Change
Smart Cities and IT Solutions
Conclusion
References
Part XIII: Business During Disasters
155 Business Resilience and Disaster Risk Management
Introduction
Businesses During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Challenges Faced by Businesses During the COVID-19 Pandemic
How Have Businesses Responded to Such Challenges?
An Overview of the Chapters
The Way Forward
Conclusion
References
156 Indonesia´s Legal Complexities in Responding to Natural Disasters and the Business Environment
Introduction
Development of Law Disaster Management in Indonesia Based on Natural Disaster That Occurred
Aceh Tsunami (2004)
Padang Earthquake on West Sumatra (2009)
Mount Merapi Eruption on Central Java (2010)
COVID-19 Pandemic and Impact on the Business Environment
Development of Law Disaster Management in Indonesia Based on the International Disaster Response Law (IDRL)
Impact of Disaster Management-Related Law, Policies, and Regulations on Business
Economic Impact of COVID-19 Disaster in Indonesia
Indonesian Government COVID-19 Policy Impact on Business
Conclusion
References
157 Platform Co-operative Models and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Singapore
Introduction
Background
Platform Co-Operatives
Types and Forms of Platform Co-Operatives
Benefits of Digital Platforms for Co-Ops
Challenges of Digital Platforms for Co-Ops
Platform Co-Operativism
Principles of Platform Co-Operativism
Other Platform Co-Operativism Concepts
Research Methods
Co-Operatives in Singapore
Singapore National Co-Operative Federation (SNCF)
Governance of Co-Operatives in Singapore
What Works for Co-Operatives
Multi-Stakeholder Partnership
Collaborative Governance
Emerging Roles of Co-Operatives
Social Dimension
Economic Dimension
Harnessing Technology
Conclusion
Limitations and Suggested Further Research
References
158 Tourism Industry and the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study in Indonesia
Introduction
Revisiting Strategies for the Tourism Industry
The Impact of COVID-19 on Indonesia´s Tourism and Supporting Industries
The Impact of COVID-19 on Indonesia´s Economic Growth (GDP)
Increased Environmental Consciousness in Tourism Norms
Findings and Solutions
Recommendations
Rebuilding and Revitalizing Tourism Industry
Develop Alternative Strategies to Gain and Increase Revenue by Redirecting the Focus on Local Tourism
Improve Tourism Infrastructure during Full Period
Promote an Environmentally Sustainable Lifestyle
Repurpose the Affected Sectors Supporting the Tourism Industry for Alternative Revenue Sources
Conclusion
Lessons Learned
Limitations and Suggested Future Research
References
159 Food Security and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Singapore
Introduction
Background
Food Security Management
The COVID-19 Pandemic and Panic Buying Behavior
Case Study
Singapore´s Approach to Food Security and Resilience
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Food Security in Singapore
The Way Forward to Achieve a Higher Level of Food Self-Sufficiency
Conclusion
References
160 CSR and Sustainable Coexistence with Society During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Korean Large Enterprises
Introduction
CSR in South Korea
Its Adoption and Approach
Function of CSR
CSR During Disasters and COVID-19
COVID-19 and Coexistence with Society in Korea
Discussion
Conclusion
References
161 The Importance of Restructuring the Local Food System in the Context of Disaster Management: Lessons Learned from the Effe...
Introduction
Agricultural Policy for Food Security and the Actual Situation in Japan
Effect of COVID-19 on Agriculture in Japan
High Value-Adding Products
Crops and Milk for School Lunch
Labor Problems
Programs for Solving the Problems Brought on by COVID-19
Direct Transaction of Crops Between Producers and Consumers
Transaction Based on Solidarity
Efforts of Private Social Enterprises
Conclusion
References
162 Times of Crisis: Women and Leadership
Introduction
Double-Bind
Women and Leadership in Crises
Transformational Leadership
Feminine Societies
Conclusion
References
163 Sustaining and Shielding Business from Disasters: Assessing Indian Experiences of COVID-19 Pandemic Disaster Management
Introduction
Prolonged Lockdowns and Colossal Business Losses
COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Fallout
Migrant Workers and Job Losses
Government of India Measures for the Handling of COVID-19 Pandemic Disaster
Administrative and Financial Measures
Shielding Businesses: Government´s Action Plan for Micro, Small, and Medium (MSMEs) Enterprises
Repercussions of Prolonged Lockdown on Businesses (Post-Financial/Relief Package)
Major Policy Interventions for Sustaining of Business
India´s Resolve Under ``Self-Reliant India´´ (Aatma Nirbhar Bharat) Program
Challenges for Policies Dealing with Pandemic Disaster
Policy Slippages
Election Results in Five Indian States Validated the Satisfaction of Beneficiaries of Government Measures in Post-COVID-19 Sit...
Conclusion
References
164 How Food and Beverage Industry Overcome the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong?
Introduction
The COVID-19 Pandemic and Hong Kong´s F&B Industry
Measures Taken to Address Issues Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak
Disaster Risk Management Framework
Findings and Discussion
Four Stages of Disaster Risk Management
F&B Industry and the COVID-19
Managerial and Practical Implications
Conclusion
References
165 Behavioural Insights, Organizational Resilience, and Disaster Preparedness
Introduction
BI and Nudging
Disaster Preparedness
BI, Organizational Resilience, and Disaster Preparedness
Anticipation
Coping
Adaptation
Conclusion
References
166 Leadership and Crisis Management for Businesses Globally: The Role of Leadership in Business Sustainability in a Crisis En...
Introduction
Functions of Leadership in Business in Times of Crises
Leadership and Sustainability
Leadership in Times of Crisis
Conclusion
References
167 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic and Natural Disasters on Businesses in the Pacific: Preparing for Unknown Future Disruptions
Introduction
Disruptions in the Pacific
Impact of COVID-19 on Businesses in the Pacific
Impact of Natural Disasters in the Pacific
Fostering Social Media to Promote Traditional Economy of Bartering: An Innovation by Ordinary Citizens to Meet Community Needs...
Managing Disruptions
Preparing for Disruptions
Managing Disruptions
Overcoming Disruptions
Learning Outcomes
Teaching Methods
Conclusion
References
Index




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