Microplastics. Behavior, Fate, and Remediation

دانلود کتاب Microplastics. Behavior, Fate, and Remediation

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Microplastics. Behavior, Fate, and Remediation

نام کتاب : Microplastics. Behavior, Fate, and Remediation
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : میکروپلاستیک ها رفتار، سرنوشت، و اصلاح
سری :
نویسندگان : ,
ناشر : Bernan Press
سال نشر : 2023
تعداد صفحات : 418
ISBN (شابک) : 9781636710808 , 9781636710815
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 4 مگابایت



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Cover
Half Title
Microplastics: Behavior, Fate, and Remediation
Copyright
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgments
Part I: Characterization of Microplastics
1. Introduction
Background
The Plastics Waste Problem
Management of Plastic Waste
Microplastics
Size Ranges of MPs
Morphology of MPs
Hazards of MPs
The Food Web
Hazards and Humans
MPs Sorb and Transport Contaminants
Closing Statements
References
2. Polymer Chemistry and Properties
Introduction
Classification of Polymers
Thermoplastics and Thermosets
Elastomers
Polymerization Method
Chain Type
Copolymer Blends
Crystallinity
Additives
Plasticizers
Flame Retardants
Antioxidants
Heat Stabilizers
Curing Agents
Slip and Antiblocking Agents
Antistatic Agents
Biocides
Colorants
Unreacted Monomers and Oligomers
Closing Statements
References
3. Microplastic Types
Introduction
Primary MPs
Nurdles
Microbeads
Composition
Implications
Secondary MPs
Conversion of Macroplastics to Secondary MPs
Photodegradation
Air Pollution
Hydrolysis
Thermal
Mechanical
Microbial
Important Secondary MPs
Tire and Road Wear Particles
Particulates from Tire Wear
Plastics in Road Construction
Road-Marking Materials
Thermoplastic Road-Marking Paint
Water-Based Paints
Solvent-Based Paints
Two-Component Paints
Road-Marking Tape
Hazardous Substances in Road-Marking Products
Microfibers
Manufacture
Washing
Disposal
Implications
Closing Statements
References
4. Distribution of Microplastics in the Biosphere
Introduction
MPs in Marine Ecosystems
Beaches
MPs in Freshwater Ecosystems
MPs in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Closing Statements
References
5. Interactions of Contaminants with Microplastics
Introduction
Sorption of Heavy Metals to MPs
Mechanisms: Factors Affecting Metal Sorption by MPs
Polymer Type
Metals Involved
Solution pH
Dissolved Organic Matter
Contribution of Biofilms
Extent of Particle Weathering
Sorption of Persistent Organic Pollutants to MPs
Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Sorption
Sorption of Radionuclides to MPs
Sorption of Antibiotics
Sorption of Microorganisms to MPs
Sorption of Pathogenic Microorganisms
Sorption of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Implications: The Vector Capabilities of MPs
Closing Statements
References
6. Collection, Identification, and Quantification of Microplastics
Introduction
Field Sampling
Sampling in Water
Sampling Sediment and Soil
Collection of Atmospheric Samples
Separation of MPs from Environmental Media
Flotation/Density Separation
Sieving and Filtration
Sample Processing: Removal of Residual Organic Matter
Visual Sorting of MPs
Analytical Techniques for Polymer Identification
FTIR Spectroscopy
Raman Spectroscopy
Pyrolysis-GC/MS
Electron Microscopy
Fluorescence
Quality Control
Closing Statements
References
Part II: Separation of Microplastics from Water and Sediment
7. Removal of Microplastics from Wastewater
Introduction
Unit Operations at WWTPs
MP Removal during Pretreatment
Screening
Grit Chamber
MP Removal in Primary Treatment
Flotation
MP Removal in Secondary Treatment
MP Removal in the Activated Sludge Process
MP Removal in Biofilm-Related Process
Membrane Bioreactors
MP Removal in Tertiary Treatment
Rapid Sand Filtration
Dissolved Air Flotation
Reverse Osmosis
Coagulation
Closing Statements
References
8. Recovery of Microplastics from Sediment
Introduction
Practical Issues in Particle Separation
Density Separation
Separation Solutions
Technologies for Density Separation
Practical Issues with Density Separation
Elutriation
Froth Flotation
The Reactor Vessel
Relevant Particle Properties
Flotation Reagents
Collectors
Frothers
Jigging
Design and Operation of the Jigging Vessel
The Jigging Cycle
Feed Characteristics
Particle Density
Particle Size
Particle Shape
Bed Depth and Feed Rate
Jigs for Plastic-Plastic Separation
Electrostatic Separation
Closing Statements
References
Part III: Decomposition of Microplastics
9. Chemical Technologies for Microplastic Destruction
Introduction
Advanced Oxidation Processes
Ozone and Ozone AOPs
O3/H2O
O3/UV
Ozone and Microplastics
The Fenton Reaction and Fenton-Related AOPs
The Fenton Reactor
The Photo-Fenton Process
Homogeneous Photoelectro-Fenton Process
Fenton and Microplastics
Wet Air Oxidation
The WAO Reactor
Closing Statements
References
10. Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Oxidation
Introduction
Photocatalysis on Microplastics—Mechanisms
Photocatalysis on Microplastics—Applications
Titanium Dioxide
Zinc Oxide
Other Catalysts
Photocatalytic Reactors
Closing Statements
References
11. Decomposition by Microorganisms
Introduction
General Process
Bacterial-Directed MP Degradation
New Functional Groups and Intermediates
Bacterial Consortia
Fungal-Mediated MP/Plastic Degradation
Other Microbial Types
Factors Affecting Microbial-Mediated Degradation of MPs/Plastics
Polymer Properties
Environmental Factors
Temperature
Oxygen
pH
Nutrients
Organism-Related Factors
The Significance of Biofilms
MPs Degradation Using Bioreactor Technology
Pretreatment of the MP Feedstock
The Bioreactor
Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactor
Anaerobic Phase
Other Innovative Biological Technologies
Closing Statements
References
12. Final Remarks
References
Acronyms Used in This Book
Glossary of Terms
Index
About the Authors




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