Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory, Equipment, and Clinical Applications

دانلود کتاب Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory, Equipment, and Clinical Applications

39000 تومان موجود

کتاب تهویه مکانیکی غیرتهاجمی: تئوری، تجهیزات و کاربردهای بالینی نسخه زبان اصلی

دانلود کتاب تهویه مکانیکی غیرتهاجمی: تئوری، تجهیزات و کاربردهای بالینی بعد از پرداخت مقدور خواهد بود
توضیحات کتاب در بخش جزئیات آمده است و می توانید موارد را مشاهده فرمایید


این کتاب نسخه اصلی می باشد و به زبان فارسی نیست.


امتیاز شما به این کتاب (حداقل 1 و حداکثر 5):

امتیاز کاربران به این کتاب:        تعداد رای دهنده ها: 12


توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory, Equipment, and Clinical Applications

نام کتاب : Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory, Equipment, and Clinical Applications
ویرایش : 3rd ed. 2023
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : تهویه مکانیکی غیرتهاجمی: تئوری، تجهیزات و کاربردهای بالینی
سری :
نویسندگان :
ناشر : Springer
سال نشر : 2023
تعداد صفحات : 826
ISBN (شابک) : 3031289625 , 9783031289620
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 24 مگابایت



بعد از تکمیل فرایند پرداخت لینک دانلود کتاب ارائه خواهد شد. درصورت ثبت نام و ورود به حساب کاربری خود قادر خواهید بود لیست کتاب های خریداری شده را مشاهده فرمایید.


فهرست مطالب :


Preface
Acknowledgements
Contents
Abbreviations
Part I: Physiology
1: Rationale of Noninvasive Ventilation
1.1 The Physio-Pathological Mechanism Underlying NIV
1.1.1 NIV and Gas Exchange Improvement
1.1.2 NIV and Work of Breathing Reduction
1.1.3 Cardiovascular effects of NIV
1.2 Clinical Benefits and Negative Effects of NIV
1.2.1 Clinical Benefits of NIV
1.2.2 NIV Side Effects
1.3 Mode of Ventilation
1.4 Interfaces
1.4.1 High-PEEP Helmet NIV
1.5 Ventilators and Humidification
1.6 Pharmacological Agents
References
Part II: Interface, Ventilatory Modes and Ventilators
2: Interfaces for Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Different Types and Mask Ventilation
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Interface Selection
2.3 Facial Interface
2.3.1 Oronosal Mask
2.3.2 Total-Face/Full-Face Mask
2.3.3 Helmet
2.4 Nasal Interface
2.4.1 Nasal Mask
2.4.2 Nasal Pillow
2.5 Other Interfaces
2.5.1 Mouthpiece
2.5.2 Custom-Built
2.5.2.1 Mask Ventilation
2.6 Conclusion
References
3: Ventilatory modes of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Technology and Clinical Implications
3.1 Contraindications for NIV
3.2 Advantages
3.3 Modes of Noninvasive Ventilation
3.4 Advantages of Pressure-Targeted Ventilation
3.5 Ventilator Modes
3.5.1 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation (CPAP)
3.5.2 Bilevel Positive Pressure Ventilation (BiPAP)
3.5.2.1 Spontaneous Mode
3.5.2.2 Control Mode
3.5.2.3 Spontaneous/Timed Mode
3.5.3 Proportional Assist Ventilation
3.5.4 Volume Preset Ventilation/Volume Targeted Ventilation
3.5.5 Volume Assured Pressure Support (VAPS)
3.5.6 Adaptive Servo Ventilation
3.6 Clinical Implications of NIV
3.6.1 Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
3.6.2 Obstructive Sleep Apnea
3.6.3 Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
3.6.4 Central Sleep Apnea
3.6.5 Pulmonary Edema
3.7 Limitations
References
4: Noninvasive Ventilation-Leaks Compensation and Clinical Implications
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Air Leaks
4.1.2 Mouth Leak
4.1.3 Internal Air Leaks
4.2 Air Leaks Clinical Implications
4.2.1 Volume vs Pressure Ventilators
4.2.2 Asynchrony
References
5: New Ventilatory Modes of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
5.1 Positive + Negative Synchronized Ventilation
5.1.1 Ventilatory Mechanics
5.2 Intermittent Abdominal Pressure Ventilation (IAPV)
References
6: Ventilators for Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Theory and Technology
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Classification of Ventilators
6.3 Technologic Issues
6.3.1 Source of Gas and Oxygen Supply
6.3.2 Circuit
6.3.3 Pressurization rate or inspiratory flow
6.3.4 Back-Up Respiratory Rate
6.3.5 Air Leak Compensation
6.3.6 Battery
6.3.7 Alarm and Monitoring System
6.4 Controversial Issues
References
7: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Devices to Deliver CPAP
7.2.1 High Flow Generators
7.2.1.1 Mechanical Ventilators
7.3 Respiratory and Cardiovascular Effects of CPAP
7.3.1 Respiratory Effects of CPAP
7.3.2 Hemodynamic Effects of CPAP
7.4 CPAP Indications and Contraindications
7.4.1 Contraindications
7.4.2 Absolute
7.4.3 Relative
7.5 Conclusions
References
8: Negative Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: External Negative Pressure Ventilation (ENPV)
8.1 Introduction
8.1.1 Operation of External Ventilators (ENPV)
8.1.2 Ventilation “Mode”
8.1.3 Favorable and Adverse Side Effects of ENPV
8.2 Discussion and Analysis: Main Topic
8.2.1 Why and When ENPV Is to Be Used
8.2.1.1 ENPV in COPD Pts
8.2.1.2 ENPV in ARF- Other Than COPD Pts
8.2.2 In ARDS Patients
8.2.3 As a Bridge to Lung Transplant
8.3 Conclusions and Take Home
References
Part III: Nasal High Flow
9: High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Design and Technology of High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy Devices
9.3 Mechanisms and Physiologic Effects of High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy
9.4 Practicalities in the Implementation of High-Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy
9.5 Contraindications, Side Effects and Concerns Regarding High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy
9.6 Monitoring of High Flow Nasal Oxygen Treatment
9.7 Clinical Applications of High Flow Nasal Oxygen Therapy
References
Part IV: Complementary Technologies in NIV
10: Humidification and Airway Secretions Management
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Humidification Requirements in NIMV
10.3 Types of Humidification in NIMV
10.4 Problems of Humidification in NIMV
10.5 Management of Mucociliary Activity
10.6 Recommendations
References
11: Aerosol Therapy
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Aerosol Mechanics
11.3 Aerosol Generating Devices
11.4 Aerosol Therapy During Noninvasive Ventilation
11.4.1 Technical Aspects
11.4.2 Lung Function Variables
11.5 Conclusions and Key Points
References
Part V: Methodology; Patient-Ventilator Interaction
12: How to Start Noninvasive Ventilation: Preparation of the Patient, Interface, and Primary Ventilator Setting
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Ventilators and Interfaces
12.3 How to Approach the Patient
12.4 Primary and Secondary Ventilator Settings
12.5 Monitoring of the First NIV Session
12.6 Preventing and Solving Problems
12.7 Conclusion
References
13: Pressure/Airflow and Volume Waveforms
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Pressure Versus Time Scalar
13.3 Flow Versus Time Scalar (Fig. 13.3)
13.4 Volume Versus Time Scalar (Fig. 13.4)
13.5 Monitoring Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Using Ventilator Waveforms
13.5.1 Ineffective Triggering or Ineffective Effort
13.5.2 Autotriggering
13.5.3 Double Trigger
13.5.4 Rise Time
13.5.5 Hang-Up
13.5.6 Expiratory Cycling
13.5.7 Hyperdynamic Inflation
13.5.8 Volume Scalar
References
14: Basic Patient Ventilator Interaction: Pressure–Volume–Flow
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Patient–Ventilator Interaction
14.3 Causes that Affect Asynchrony
14.4 Asynchrony Groups
14.4.1 Asynchrony in the Trigger Phase
14.4.2 Asynchrony During the Pressurization Phase
14.4.2.1 Possible Causes
14.4.3 Asynchrony of Cycling: Asynchronous Expiration
14.4.4 Asynchrony Related to Interfaces
14.5 Conclusion
References
15: Non Invasive Ventilation Asynchrony: Diagnosis and Treatment
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Diagnosis of Asynchrony
15.3 Ventilator Waveform Analysis and Terminologies in Asynchrony in NIV (Fig. 15.1)
15.3.1 Ineffective Triggering
15.3.2 Auto-Triggering
15.3.3 Double Triggering
15.3.4 Premature & Prolonged Cycling
15.3.4.1 Waveform Identification of Premature Cycling
15.3.4.2 Waveform Identification of Delayed Cycling in Pressure Support
15.3.4.3 Clinical Identification of Cycling Asynchronies
15.4 Determinants of Asynchrony in NIV
15.4.1 Patient–Ventilator Interface
15.4.2 Rebreathing
15.4.3 Leaks
15.4.4 Humidification Devices
15.5 Key Practical Recommendations
15.5.1 Type of Ventilator
15.5.2 Trigger
15.5.3 Flow Synchrony
15.5.4 Cycling
15.5.5 Patient–Ventilator Interface
15.5.6 Humidification
15.6 Summary
References
16: Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing and Exhalation Ports During Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
16.1 Introduction
16.2 General Mechanisms of CO2 Rebreathing
16.2.1 CO2 Rebreathing During Mask Ventilation
16.3 Expiratory Ports
16.3.1 Types of Expiratory Ports
16.4 Effects of Expiratory Ports on the Dispersion of Infected Aerosols/Droplets During NIV
16.5 Conclusion
References
17: Patterns of Noninvasive Ventilation Response (Success and Failure) during Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
17.1 NIV Response in Acute Respiratory Failure: ARDS and Pneumonia
17.2 NIV Response in COPD Exacerbations
17.3 NIV Response in Postoperative Period
17.4 NIV Response in Hematologic Malignancy with ARF/ARDS
17.5 NIV Response in Cardiogenic Pulmonary EDEMA
17.6 Timing of NIV Failure
References
18: Predictive Factors of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Failure
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Immediate NIV Failure
18.3 Early NIV Failure
18.4 Late NIV Failure
18.4.1 Hypercapnic ARF Due to Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (COPD)
18.4.2 Hypercapnic ARF Due to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS)
18.4.3 Hypercapnic ARF Due to Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders
18.4.4 Hypoxemic ARF Due to Pneumonia
18.4.5 Hypoxemic ARF Due to SARS CoV2 Infection (COVID-19)
18.5 Conclusions
References
19: Noninvasive Ventilation Failure: How to Foresee, Prevent, Diagnose It, and When to Switch to Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
19.1 Patient Selection
19.1.1 Condition that Led to Acute Respiratory Failure and Co-Morbidities
19.1.1.1 COPD Exacerbation
19.1.1.2 Asthma Attack
19.1.1.3 Chest Wall Disorder
19.1.1.4 Neuromuscular Diseases
19.1.1.5 Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
19.1.1.6 Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome
19.1.1.7 Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) – ARDS
19.1.1.8 Immunocompromised
19.1.1.9 COVID-19 Infection
19.1.1.10 Contraindications for Noninvasive Positive Pressure Support Ventilation
19.2 Experience of the Team and Level of Specialization of the Department
19.2.1 Definition of Expert Team
19.2.2 Treatment Plan
19.2.3 Organization of the Structure
19.3 How to Recognize the Failure of NIV
19.4 Indications for Tracheal Intubation and Invasive Ventilation
19.5 Conclusions
References
20: Withdrawal of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Determinants of Weaning Failure
20.3 Sedation and Analgesia During Weaning
20.4 When to Consider NIV Withdrawal
20.5 Method for NIV Withdrawal
20.5.1 Immediate Withdrawal of NIV
20.5.2 Stepwise Reduction of Duration
20.5.3 Stepwise Reduction of Pressure Support
20.6 Need of Long-Term NIV Support
20.7 Conclusion
References
21: Psychological Factors during Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Discussion
21.3 Anxiety and Depression
21.4 Acceptance of NIV
21.5 Doctor–Patient Interaction
21.6 Sexuality
21.7 Conclusions
References
Part VI: Monitoring, Complications and Hospital Transport
22: Nocturnal Monitoring in the Evaluation of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Nocturnal Monitoring Tools
22.2.1 Overnight Oximetry
22.2.2 Rhinomanometry
22.2.3 “Smart” Technologies
22.2.4 Novel Technologies
22.3 Conclusions
References
23: Complications During Noninvasive Pressure Support Ventilation
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Complications During Noninvasive Pressure Support Ventilation
23.2.1 Minor Complications of Noninvasive Ventilation (Table 23.1) [4–7]
23.2.2 Problems Related to The Mask
23.2.2.1 Mask Discomfort and Intolerance
23.2.2.2 Claustrophobia
23.2.2.3 Compression and Ulceration
23.2.2.4 Arm Edema and Venous Thrombosis
23.2.3 Problems Related to Air Pressure and Flow
23.2.3.1 Nasal Congestion and Dryness
23.2.3.2 Eye Irritation
23.2.3.3 Gastric Insufflation
23.2.3.4 Ear, Nose, and Sinus Pain
23.3 Major Complications of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation [4–7] (Table 23.2)
23.3.1 Aspiration and Pneumonia
23.3.2 Pneumothorax
23.3.3 Hemodynamic Instability
23.3.4 Inadequate Gas Exchange
23.4 Conclusion
References
24: Intra-Hospital Transport During Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Intra-Hospital Transport Planning
24.2.1 Logistical Planning
24.2.2 Organizational Planning
24.2.3 Clinical Planning
24.2.3.1 Monitoring level
24.2.3.2 Patient Setup for the Intrahospital Transport
A—Airways
B—Breathing
C—Circulation
D—Disability
D—Drainages
Exposure
24.3 Intrahospital Transport of Patients under Airborne Isolation Precautions
24.4 Conclusions
References
Part VII: Chronic Applications Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
25: New Ventilatory Modes in Sleep-Disordered Breathing: Key Topics and Clinical Implications
25.1 Introduction
25.2 An Overview of PAP Devices Features
25.2.1 The Basic Concept of PAP Therapy
25.2.2 Essential Components of a PAP Therapy Device
25.2.3 Pressure Ramp-Up Feature
25.2.4 Expiratory Pressure Relief Algorithms
25.2.5 Leak Compensation
25.2.5.1 Leakage Compensation Mechanism
25.2.6 Defining the Respiratory Cycle
25.2.7 Built-in Software and Display Screen
25.2.8 Data Collection, Display, and Analysis
25.3 New Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) Ventilatory Modes
25.3.1 Autotitrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (APAP)
25.3.2 Autotitrating Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (AUTO-BPAP)
25.3.3 Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV)
25.3.4 Volume-Targeted Pressure Support (VtPS)
25.4 Conclusion
References
26: Devices for CPAP in OSA
26.1 Introduction
26.2 CPAP (Continuous positive airway pressure)
26.3 Auto-CPAP (APAP)
26.4 BPAP (Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure)
26.5 BPAP-ST
26.6 AUTO-BPAP
26.7 AVAPS (Average Volume Assured Pressure Support)
26.8 ASV (Adaptive Servo Ventilator)
26.9 Conclusion
References
27: Transnasal Insufflation: A New Approach to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea
27.1 Introduction
27.1.1 Transnasal Insufflation and High Flow Nasal Cannula
27.1.2 Brief Description of the Device
27.1.3 Physiological Effect of Transnasal Insufflation in Upper Airway Patency
27.2 Clinical Evidence on the Role of Transnasal Insufflation in the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
27.2.1 Children
27.2.2 Adults
27.3 Summary
References
28: Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Diagnosis and Clinical Presentation
28.3 Pathophysiology
28.3.1 Changes in Lung Function Secondary to Obesity
28.3.2 Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Impaired Central Respiratory Drive
28.3.3 Neurohormonal Disorders
28.4 Management of OHS
28.4.1 CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)
28.4.2 Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV)
28.4.3 AVAPS (Average Volume-Assured Pressure Support)
28.5 CPAP or Noninvasive Ventilation for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
28.6 Acute Respiratory Failure in (ARF) OHS
References
29: Cardiopulmonary Interventions to Prolong Survival in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Discussions and Analysis
29.2.1 Clinical Course of DMD
29.2.2 Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Function
29.2.3 Nocturnal Respiratory Support in DMD
29.2.4 Diurnal Respiratory Support in DMD
29.2.5 Modes and Monitoring
29.2.5.1 Modes
Pressure-Controlled Ventilation
Volume-Controlled Ventilation
Volume-Targeted Pressure-Controlled Ventilation
29.2.5.2 Settings
29.2.5.3 Monitoring
29.2.6 When to Start NIV?
29.2.7 NIV Adherence
29.2.8 Contraindications and Precautions for NIV
29.2.9 Efficacy of NIV
29.2.9.1 Quality of Life and Symptoms
29.2.9.2 Blood Gas Improvement
Survival
29.2.9.3 Delay Decline in Lung Function
29.2.9.4 Improved Cardiac Function
29.2.9.5 Ameliorate Symptoms
29.2.9.6 Increased Tracheostomy Risk
29.3 Conclusions
References
30: Noninvasive Ventilation Pressure Adjustments in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Discussion
30.3 Conclusion
References
31: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Myasthenia Crisis
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Myasthenic Crisis
31.3 Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Myasthenia Gravis
31.4 Predictors of Failure
31.5 Weaning from Mechanical Invasive Ventilation
References
32: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in COPD Exacerbations
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Pathophysiology of Respiratory Failure in COPD Applied to the Management of Patients in Need of Ventilatory Care (Why?)
32.2.1 The Load (Respiratory Mechanics)-Capacity (Inspiratory Muscle Strength) Balance
32.2.2 Pathophysiological Rationale of Using NIMV to Treat ARF in COPD Exacerbation
32.2.2.1 NIMV and Inspiratory Muscle Effort
32.2.2.2 NIMV and Respiratory Neuromuscular Control
32.2.2.3 NIMV and Pulmonary Gas Exchange
32.3 Timing to Start NIMV (when?)
32.4 Where Should NIMV be Delivered (Where?)
32.5 Ventilatory Strategies and Modes in COPD Exacerbation (How?)
32.5.1 Choice between Noninvasive Versus Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV)
32.5.1.1 IMV as Frontline Intervention
32.5.1.2 IMV as Second Line Intervention
32.5.2 Choice between Controlled and Assisted Ventilatory Modes
32.5.2.1 Controlled Mechanical Ventilation (CMV)
32.5.3 Choice and Setting of Assisted Ventilatory Modes
32.5.3.1 Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV)
Patient–Ventilator Interactions
32.5.3.2 PEEP/CPAP
32.5.3.3 Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV)
32.5.3.4 Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA)
32.5.4 NIMV: Role of Interfaces
32.6 Conclusions
References
33: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Key Determinants of Early and Late Failure
33.1 Introduction
33.2 Discussion and Analysis of Main Topic
33.3 Conclusion and Discussion
References
34: Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Asthma
34.1 Introduction
34.2 Noninvasive Ventilation’s Effects on Lung Function in Asthma
34.3 NIV in Adult Asthma
34.4 NIV in Child Asthma
34.5 International Guidelines Recommendations
34.6 Observational Studies Results
34.7 Summary
References
35: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Restrictive Pulmonary Disease
35.1 Types of Restrictive Lung Disease
35.2 Which Patients Are Likely to Benefit from Noninvasive Ventilation?
35.3 Where to Initiate Noninvasive Ventilation?
35.4 Settings and Titration
35.4.1 Mode
35.4.2 Pressure
35.4.3 Volume
35.4.4 Other Settings
35.4.5 Interfaces
References
36: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
36.1 Introduction
36.2 Basic Concepts of Cardiopulmonary Mechanics
36.3 Positive Pressure Ventilation and Cardiovascular Physiology
36.4 Hemodynamics of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
36.5 Types of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV)
36.5.1 Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
36.5.2 Bilevel PAP (BiPAP)
36.5.3 Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV)
36.6 Indications of PAP Therapy in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
36.6.1 Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (ACPE)
36.6.2 Mitral Regurgitation
36.6.3 Cautions for RV Failure
36.7 Conclusion
References
37: NIV and Cardiac Diseases with Left Ventricular Mechanics
37.1 Introduction
37.2 Pathophysiology of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema in ADHF
37.3 Cardiac Mechanoenergetics and Pressure–Volume Loop Diagram
37.3.1 End-Systolic Pressure–Volume Relationship (ESPVR)
37.3.2 End-Diastolic Pressure–Volume Relationship (EDPVR)
37.3.3 Effective Arterial Elastance (Ea)
37.4 Effects of Positive Airway Pressure on Physiologic Effects and Hemodynamics
37.4.1 Impact of PAP Therapy on Cardiac Properties
37.4.2 Preload-Dependent and Afterload-Dependent Hemodynamics
37.4.3 In Predominantly Preload-Dependent State (= More Sensitive to LV Preload, E.g., Normal-Healthy Heart, Severe RV Failure, or Under High-PEEP)
37.4.4 In Predominantly Afterload-Dependent State (= More Sensitive to LV Afterload, E.g., Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction)
37.5 NIPPV Improves Clinical Outcome
37.6 Conclusions
References
38: Home Ventilation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
38.1 Introduction
38.2 Efficacy of Home Type Noninvasive Ventilation in COPD Patients
38.3 Home Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Indications in COPD Patients
38.4 Home Mechanical Ventilator Settings for COPD Patients
References
39: Nocturnal Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
39.1 Introduction
39.2 Neuromuscular Diseases
39.3 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
39.4 Kyphoscoliosis
39.5 Conclusions
References
40: European Models of Home Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: What Have We Learned? Evidence and Key Determinants
40.1 Introduction
40.2 HMV Prevalence in Europe
40.3 HMV Models
40.4 NIV Adaptation in HMV Programs
40.5 HMV Programs Follow-Up
40.6 Conclusions
References
41: TeleHome Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
41.1 Introduction
41.2 Discussion and Analysis
41.2.1 NIV Monitoring Systems
41.2.1.1 NIV Hardware
41.2.1.2 NIV Software
41.2.1.3 Cloud Platforms
41.2.2 Telemonitoring for Respiratory Disorders
41.2.2.1 Telehome NIV for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders
41.2.2.2 Telehome NIV for COPD
41.2.2.3 Telehome NIV for Other Chronic Respiratory Disorders
41.2.3 Limitations of Telehome NIV
41.3 Conclusion
References
42: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Rare Diseases
42.1 Introduction
42.1.1 NIV Usage in Patients with Neuromuscular Diseases and Chest Wall Disorders
42.1.2 Rare Disease with Anatomic Anomalies of the Face and/or Airway
42.1.3 Disease of Central Nervous System
42.2 Final Conclusions
42.2.1 Learning Points
42.2.2 Critical Points
42.2.3 Key Summary
References
43: Unusual and Emergent New Indications for Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
43.1 Introduction
43.2 Brief Overview of Traditional Indications for Noninvasive Ventilation
43.3 Expanding the Horizons of Noninvasive Ventilation
43.3.1 Acute Asthma Exacerbation
43.3.2 Thoracic Trauma
43.3.3 Immunosuppression
43.3.4 Before and After Endotracheal Intubation
43.3.5 Respiratory Failure in the Pediatric Population
43.3.6 End-Stage Acute-on-Chronic Respiratory Failure with Do-Not-Intubate Order
43.3.7 Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic
43.4 Conclusion
References
Part VIII: Critical Care Applications of NIMV and Related Issues
44: Equipment Technology for Noninvasive Ventilation in Pre-hospital Setting
44.1 Important Components of a Pre-hospital NIV Device
44.2 Types of Prehospital Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Systems
44.2.1 Conventional external pressure regulator NIPPV systems
44.2.2 WhisperFlow® and Vital Signs CPAP System
44.2.3 Disposable CPAP Devices
44.2.4 Boussignac®
44.2.5 O-Two Controlled Ventilations™
44.2.6 GO-PAP™
44.3 Rescuer® Emergency CPAP System (BLS Systems Limited)
44.4 O2RESQ™
44.5 StarMed Ventumask 30
44.6 DIMAR Easy Vent Mask
44.7 Demand Flow
44.7.1 PortO2Vent™
44.8 MACS CPAP System
44.9 Transport Ventilators with NIV Functionality
References
Resources
45: Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Pre-Hospital Medicine: Clinical Applications
45.1 Introduction
45.2 Clinical Applications
45.2.1 Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema
45.2.2 Acute Exacerbation of COPD
45.2.3 Acute Asthma Attack
45.2.4 Thoracic Trauma
45.2.5 COVID-19
45.3 Conclusion
References
46: Noninvasive Ventilation Outside Intensive Care Units
46.1 Introduction
46.2 Primary Indications of NIV
46.3 Essential Requirements for the Safe Use of NIV
46.4 Newly Expanding Indications of NIV Outside the ICU
46.4.1 Role of NIV in the Operating Room
46.4.2 Role of NIV in Obstetric Care
46.4.3 Role of NIV in Emergency Department (ED)
46.4.4 Role of NIV in the General Wards
46.4.5 Role of NIV in the Home Care Setting
46.4.6 The Role of NIV Therapy Outside ICU During the COVID-19 Pandemic
46.5 Summary
References
47: Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure in Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema
47.1 Introduction
47.2 What Is ACPE?
47.3 What Is NIPAP?
47.4 Discussion of Main Topics
47.4.1 How NIPAP Works on ACPE and What Are Appropriate Settings of NIPAP?
47.4.1.1 Effects of NIPAP on Respiration
47.4.1.2 Effects of NIPAP on Hemodynamics
47.5 Evidence on NIPAP
47.6 Tips and Tricks for Practical Use of NIPAP
47.7 Application of NIPAP in Patients with ACPE Complicated by Coronavirus Disease
47.8 Conclusion
References
48: Noninvasive Ventilation in Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury
48.1 Introduction
48.2 Pathogenesis of TRALI
48.3 Risk Factors
48.3.1 Conditions Associated with TRALI [3]
48.3.2 Transfusion Risk Factors for TRALI [3]
48.4 Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations
48.5 Management
48.6 Physiological Basis for Noninvasive Ventilation in TRALI
48.7 Evidence for NIV Use in TRALI
48.8 Conclusions
References
49: Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Lung Injury
49.1 Introduction
49.2 Evidence for Noninvasive Ventilation in ALI
49.3 Noninvasive Ventilation Failure in ALI
49.4 Conclusion
References
50: Noninvasive Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
50.1 Background
50.2 Brief Overview of ARDS Pathophysiology
50.3 General Considerations on Ventilatory Support in ARDS
50.4 The Decision to Perform NIV in ARDS
50.5 NIV in ARDS-COVID-19
50.6 NIV Failure in ARDS
References
51: Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure in Solid-Cancer Patients
51.1 Introduction
51.2 Pathophysiological Basis of Noninvasive Ventilation Support in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
51.3 Basic Practice Principles of Noninvasive Ventilation Support in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
51.4 Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure in Solid-Cancer Patients
51.5 Oxygenation and Ventilation Strategies
51.6 Palliative Ventilatory Support in Solid-Cancer Patients
51.7 Conclusion
References
52: Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure in Haematological Critically Ill Patients: NIV in Acute Immunodeficiency Diseases
52.1 Haematological Critically Ill Patients
52.2 Acute Respiratory Failure in Immunocompromised Patients with Haematological Malignancies
52.3 Evidence for NIV in Haematological Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure
52.4 Conclusions and Perspectives
References
53: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Lung Transplant Recipients
53.1 Background
53.2 Perioperative Period
53.2.1 Bridge to Transplant
53.2.2 Early Extubation
53.2.3 Early Post-Operative Graft Dysfunction Following Extubation
53.2.4 Neuromuscular Weakness
53.3 Beyond the Perioperative Period
53.3.1 Acute Respiratory Failure
53.3.2 Domiciliary Use: Chronic Respiratory Failure
53.3.3 Domiciliary Use: Sleep-Disordered Breathing
53.4 Conclusion
References
54: Noninvasive Ventilation as a Preoxygenation
54.1 Introduction
54.2 Devices Used for Preoxygenation
54.3 NIV and Preoxygenation During General Anesthesia
54.4 NIV and Preoxygenation in Acute Post-Operative Respiratory Failure
54.5 NIV and Preoxygenation During Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure
54.6 Conclusion
References
55: Noninvasive Ventilation During Bronchoscopy
55.1 Purpose of Review
55.2 Recent Findings
55.3 Summary
55.4 Main Summary Results
References
56: Noninvasive Ventilation in Preoperative Use
56.1 Introduction
56.2 Discussion
56.3 Conclusions
References
57: Intraoperative Noninvasive Ventilation
57.1 Introduction
57.2 NIV Versus Invasive Ventilation Intraoperatively
57.3 Principle of NIV in ARF, Acute Exacerbation of COPD AND Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Oedema
57.3.1 The Rationale for Use of NIV with Neuraxial Anaesthesia (NA) in Conditions Such as COPD
57.3.2 The Rationale of NIV Use in Sleeping Disorders During Anaesthesia (Sedation or NA)
57.3.3 Use of Intraoperative NIV in Patients with Respiratory Muscle Weakness and Restrictive Lung Disorders
57.4 NIV Modalities and NIV Ventilators Which Can Be Used Intraoperatively
57.4.1 Patient Interfaces Used Intraoperatively
57.5 Use of Therapeutic or Prophylactic Intraoperative NIV in Different Types of Surgeries (Tables 57.3, 57.4, 57.5, 57.6, and 57.7)
57.6 Summary
References
58: Use of Noninvasive Ventilation in Postoperative Patients in Cardiac Surgery
58.1 Introduction
58.2 Alterations in Pulmonary Function After Cardiac Surgery
58.3 Weaning from IMV: The Risk of Post-Extubation Failure
58.4 Post-Cardiotomy NIV: Principles and Rational for Use
58.5 Current Evidence
58.5.1 NIV Modalities and Interfaces
58.5.2 NIV Limitations and Untoward Effects
58.5.3 Locations
58.5.4 Clinical Scenarios
58.6 Five Practical Rules for Successful Implementation of NIV
58.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
References
59: Use of Noninvasive Ventilation in Postoperative Patients in Abdominal Surgery
59.1 Introduction
59.2 Current Evidence and Discussion
59.3 Conclusion
References
60: Noninvasive Ventilation in Thoracic and Neurosurgery
60.1 NIMV in Thoracic Surgery
60.1.1 NIV Initiation Criteria and Application Procedure: In the Post-Operative Process
60.1.2 General Benefits and Possible Harms of NIV
60.2 NIMV in Neurosurgery
References
61: Noninvasive Ventilation in Solid Organ Transplantation
61.1 Introduction
61.2 Noninvasive Ventilation and Solid Organ Transplantation
61.2.1 Liver Transplantation
61.2.2 Kidney Transplantation
61.2.3 Lung Transplantation
61.3 Noninvasive Ventilation Efficacy in Solid Organ Transplantation
61.4 Risk Factors and Rates of Noninvasive Ventilation Failure
61.5 Conclusion
References
62: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients Undergoing Lung Resection Surgery
62.1 Introduction
62.2 Discussion and Analysis Main Topic
62.2.1 Noninvasive Ventilation
62.2.2 Air Leaks
62.2.3 High Flow Nasal Cannula
62.2.4 Failure of NIV
62.2.5 Setting
62.3 Conclusions
References
Part IX: NIMV Analgesia and Sedation
63: Sedation and Analgesia During Noninvasive Ventilation in Intensive Care
63.1 Introduction
63.2 Discussion
63.2.1 Drugs for Sedation and Analgesia During NIV
63.2.2 Monitoring Sedation and Pain During NIV
63.3 Conclusion
References
Part X: Weaning from Conventional MV and Post-extubation Failure
64: Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Post-Extubation Period
64.1 Introduction
64.2 Pathophysiological Changes during the Post-Extubation Period: Causes of Extubation Failure
64.3 Physiological Advantages Offered by NIV
64.3.1 Improvement of Blood Gas Exchange through Augmentation of Minute Ventilation (VE)
64.3.2 Improvement of Blood Gas Exchange through Alveolar Recruitment
64.3.3 Unloading of Respiratory Muscles
64.3.4 Resetting the Respiratory Center
64.3.5 Reduction of Inspiratory Triggering Load Caused by Auto-PEEP
64.3.6 Cardiac Interactions
64.3.7 Maintenance of Upper-Airway Patency
64.4 NIV Implications during Post-Extubation Period
64.5 To Facilitate Weaning from Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
64.6 To Prevent Acute Respiratory Failure and Reintubation
64.7 To Treat Post-Extubation Acute Respiratory Failure
64.8 NIV after Extubation in a Post-Operative Setting
64.9 Summary of Clinical Implications
64.10 Conclusions
References
65: Extubation and Decannulation of Unweanable Patients with Neuromuscular Weakness Disorders
65.1 Introduction
65.2 Noninvasive Respiratory Supports in NMDS
65.3 Drifting to Invasive Ventilation: The Conventional Paradigm
65.4 Weaning of the Unweanable Patients: Changing the Paradigm?
65.5 When to Trach?
65.6 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
References
66: Chest Physiotherapy and Noninvasive Ventilation in Post-Extubation Respiratory Failure: Prevention and Indications
66.1 Weaning of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV)
66.2 Extubation Failure and Acute Respiratory Failure
66.3 Approach to Acute Respiratory Failure
66.3.1 Chest Physiotherapy in Weaning and Post-Extubation Respiratory Failure Prevention
66.3.2 Noninvasive Ventilation in Post-Extubation Respiratory Failure
66.3.2.1 Prophylactic Noninvasive Ventilation
Low Risk of Post-Extubation Respiratory Failure
High Risk of Post-Extubation Respiratory Failure
66.3.2.2 Therapeutic Noninvasive Ventilation
66.4 Special Situations of Extubation Failure
66.4.1 Post-Operative Respiratory Failure
66.4.2 Patients with Unplanned Extubation
References
Part XI: Rehabilitation Applications
67: Noninvasive Ventilation During Rehabilitation
67.1 Introduction
67.2 Noninvasive Ventilation and Rehabilitation
67.2.1 Nocturnal Noninvasive Ventilation and Rehabilitation
67.2.2 Noninvasive Ventilation During Exercise
67.2.2.1 Effects of Noninvasive Ventilation During a Single Session of Exercise
67.2.2.2 Mechanisms
67.2.2.3 Noninvasive Ventilation During Exercise Training
67.2.3 Nocturnal NIV and NIV During Exercise Training
67.2.4 Practical Considerations
67.2.4.1 Patient Selection
67.2.4.2 Noninvasive Ventilation Settings for Exercise
67.2.4.3 Device Capacity
67.2.4.4 Interfaces
67.3 Conclusion
References
68: Combination of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation and Complementary Therapies to Clear Airway Secretions
68.1 Introduction
68.2 Discussion and Analysis
68.3 Conclusion
References
Part XII: Training and Education NIMV
69: Skills and Training in Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
69.1 Introduction
69.2 Importance and Influence of Staff Training on the Outcome with NIV
69.3 Educational Programs
69.4 Content of Educational Programs
69.5 Conclusion
References
Part XIII: NIV Practice and Trends. Epidemiology Perspectives
70: Trends of Noninvasive Ventilation: Epidemiology Insights
70.1 Introduction
70.2 Current Main Indications
70.3 Home NIV
70.4 NIV in ARDS
70.5 Chronic NIV for COPD
70.6 NIV and HFNC
70.7 Future Research
70.8 Conclusions
References
Part XIV: NIMV Do Not Endotracheal Intubation Order, Palliative and Quality of Life Influence
71: Palliative Use of Noninvasive Ventilation
71.1 Introduction
71.2 End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Disease
71.3 Neoplastic Disease
References
72: Do Not Endotracheal Intubate Order, Use of Noninvasive Ventilation
72.1 Do Not Intubate (DNI) Order, What Is It?
72.2 Questions Like WHO, WHEN, WHERE, and WHY Have NIV with DNI Order?
72.2.1 Who and When Will Benefit from NIV?
72.2.1.1 Advanced Physiological Age (>85 Years/Old) with Instability
Therapeutic Options in Elderly with Acute Respiratory Failure [35, 43]
72.2.1.2 Dementia
72.2.1.3 Advanced Lung Disease: Terminal Respiratory Disease (Malignant/Nonmalignant Severe Respiratory Disease)
72.2.1.4 Advanced Heart Disease (End Stage Cardiac Failure)
72.2.1.5 Progressive Neuromyopathies/Motor Neuron Disease
72.2.1.6 Patient’s Will (Who Refuses Intubation)
72.2.1.7 Other Diseases
ARF and Self-Prone-Position (in Acute Viral Pneumonias)
ARF and Acute Renal Failure (Acute Kidney Injury)
End-Stage Liver Disease
72.2.2 Where Should the Patients Be Monitored?
72.2.3 WHY Use NIV in DNI Order?
72.3 High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen (HFNC) as an Alternative to NIV?
72.4 In Conclusion, Remember…
References
73: Influence of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation and Implications of Quality of Life
73.1 Introduction
73.2 Conclusions
References
74: Use of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Older Patients
74.1 Introduction
74.2 Gerontopneumology
74.3 Acute Respiratory Failure in Older Patients
74.4 Chronic Respiratory Failure in Older Patients
74.5 Discussion and Analysis: Noninvasive Ventilation of Elderly Patients
74.6 Conclusion
References
75: Predictors of Survival in Patients with Chronic Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Receiving Noninvasive Ventilation
75.1 Introduction
75.2 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
75.3 Restrictive Thoracic Disorders
References
Part XV: NIMV in Neonates and Children
76: Noninvasive Ventilation in Children with Hypoxemic RF
76.1 Introduction
76.2 Discussion and Analysis of the Main Topic
76.3 NIV Use in Specific Conditions
76.3.1 Acute Respiratory Failure
76.3.2 Asthma
76.3.3 Bronchiolitis
76.4 Conclusion
References
77: The Ethics of Noninvasive Ventilation in Palliative Care
77.1 Introduction
77.2 Goals of Palliative Care and Palliative Ventilation
77.3 NIMV in Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
77.4 NIMV in Neuromuscular Diseases
77.5 NIMV in Cancer
77.6 NIMV Role as Supporting Chronic Respiratory Failure in Interstitial Lung Disease
77.7 Final Considerations
References
Part XVI: NIMV and Health Care Organizations Models
78: New Models of Hospital Organization of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation: Step-Down Unit, Respiratory Intensive Care Units
78.1 Introduction
78.2 Step-Down Units: Outcomes and Costs
78.3 Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation and New Models of Hospital Organization
References
Index




پست ها تصادفی