Veterinary medicine a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats Volume 1

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Veterinary medicine a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats Volume 1

نام کتاب : Veterinary medicine a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats Volume 1
ویرایش : 11
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : کتاب دامپزشکی کتاب درسی بیماریهای گاو، اسب، گوسفند، خوک و بز جلد 1
سری :
نویسندگان : , , ,
ناشر : Elsevier Inc.
سال نشر : 2017
تعداد صفحات : 2342
ISBN (شابک) : 9780702070570 , 0702070572
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 131 مگابایت



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Front Cover
Veterinary Medicine
Title Page Volume one
Copyright Page
Dr. Otto M. Radostits, August 31, 1934-December 15, 2006, Senior Author, Fifth to Seventh Editions; Lead Author, Eighth to Tenth Editions
Dedictaion_Clive Gay
1920?2013
Contributors
Preface to the Eleventh Edition
Introduction
Veterinary Medicine in the Anthropocene
Contemporary Livestock Production
Veterinary Clinical Epidemiology
Veterinary Scientific Literature and How to Use It
Quality of Evidence
From Evidence to Recommendation
Food- and Fiber-Producing Animals
Industrialized Animal Agriculture
Companion-Animal Practice
Equine Practice
Contrasting Objectives
The Objectives of Food-Producing-Animal Practice
Efficiency of Livestock Production
Animal Welfare
Zoonoses and Food Safety
Principles of Food-Producing Animal Practice
Regular Farm Visits
Clinical Examination and Diagnosis
Examination of the Herd
Collection and Analysis of Animal Health Data
Public Health and Food Safety
Economics of Veterinary Practice
Veterinary Education
Optimal Utilization of the Food-Producing-Animal Practitioner
Further Reading
References
List of Tables
List of Illustrations
1 Clinical Examination and Making a Diagnosis
Introduction
Making a Diagnosis
Diagnostic Methods
Method 1: the Syndrome or Pattern Recognition
Method 2: Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning
Method 3: the Arborization or Algorithm Method
Method 4: the Key Abnormality Method
Determination of the Abnormality of Function Present
Determination of the System or Body as a Whole or Organ Affected
Determination of the Location of the Lesion Within the System or Organ Affected
Determination of the Type of Lesion
Determination of the Specific Cause of the Lesion
Method 5: the Database Method
Clinical Examination of the Individual Animal
History Taking
History-Taking Method
Animal Data
Disease History
Present Disease
Morbidity, Case Fatality, and Population Mortality Rates
Prior Treatment
Prophylactic and Control Measures
Previous Exposure
Transit
Culling Rate
Previous Disease
Management History
Nutrition
Livestock at Pasture
Hand-Fed/Stall-Fed Animals
Reproductive Management and Performance
Breeding History
Reproductive History
Climate
General Management
Examination of the Environment
Outdoor Environment
Topography and Soil Type
Stocking Rate Population Density
Feed and Water Supplies
Pasture and Feed
Water
Waste Disposal
Indoor Environment
Hygiene
Ventilation
Flooring
Floor Plan
Lighting
Examination of the Animal
General Inspection Distant Examination
Behavior and General Appearance
Behavior
Excitation States
Voice
Eating
Defecation
Urination
Posture
Gait
Body Condition
Body Conformation
Skin
Inspection of Body Regions Particular Distant Examination
Head
Neck
Thorax
Respiratory Rate
Respiratory Rhythm
Prolongation of Phases
Respiratory Depth
Type of Respiration
Thorax Symmetry
Respiratory Noises or Stridors
Abdomen
External Genitalia
Mammary Glands
Limbs
Close Physical Examination
Palpation
Percussion
Ballottement
Auscultation
Percussion and Simultaneous Auscultation of the Abdomen
Succussion
Other Techniques
Sequence Used in the Close Physical Examination
Vital Signs
Temperature
Pulse
Rate
Rhythm
Amplitude
State of Hydration
Examination of Body Regions
Thorax
Cardiac Area
Lung Area
Abdomen
Auscultation
Auscultation of the Rumen of Cattle and Sheep
Intestinal Sounds of the Horse
Palpation and Percussion Through the Abdominal Wall
Percussion and Simultaneous Auscultation
Tactile Percussion of the Abdomen
Abdominal Pain
Nasogastric Intubation
Head and Neck
Eyes
Examination of the Conjunctiva
Corneal Abnormalities
Size of the Eyeball
Abnormal Eyeball Movements
Examination of the Deep Structures
Vision Tests
Nostrils
Mouth
Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
Submaxillary Region
Neck
Rectal Examination
Feces and Defecation
Color of the Feces.
Fecal Odor.
Composition.
Frequency of Defecation.
Other Observations
Paracentesis of the Abdomen
Urinary System
Reproductive Tract
Mammary Gland
Musculoskeletal System and Feet
Nervous System
Skin Including Ears, Hooves, and Horns
Diagnostic Imaging
Further Reading
References
Interpretation of Laboratory Data
Why Collect Laboratory Data?
Properties of Diagnostic Tests
Utility
Reference Range Interval
Problems With Reference Ranges
Sensitivity and Specificity
Likelihood Ratio
Positive and Negative Predictive Value
Further Reading
References
Computer-Assisted Diagnosis
Reference
Prognosis and Therapeutic Decision Making
Systematic Reviews
Decision Analysis
Further Reading
References
2 Examination of the Population
Approach to Examining the Population
Examination Steps
Step 1: Defining the Abnormality
Step 2: Defining the Pattern of Occurrence and Risk Factors
Temporal Pattern
Spatial Examination
Step 3: Defining the Etiologic Group
Step 4: Defining the Specific Etiology
Techniques in Examination of the Herd or Flock
Clinical Examination
Sampling and Laboratory Testing
Numerical Assessment of Performance
Intervention Strategies and Response Trials
Role of the Integrated Animal Health and Production Management Program
Further Reading
References
3 Biosecurity and Infection Control
Definitions and Concepts
Development of a Biosecurity Plan
Initial Planning
Practices to Aid in Maintaining Biosecurity
Testing and/or Isolation of Newly Introduced Animals
Controlling Contact by Visitors to the Operation
Controlling Contact by Wildlife, Neighboring Livestock, and Pets
Separating Groups of Animals Based on Risk
Cleaning and Disinfection
Disease Monitoring and Record Keeping
Communication, Training, and Assessment
Further Reading
References
4 General Systemic States
Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, and Fever
Body Temperature
Heat Production
Heat Loss
Balance Between Heat Loss and Gain
Breed Differences
Hypothermia
Etiology
Excessive Loss of Heat
Insufficient Heat Production
Combination of Excessive Heat Loss and Insufficient Heat Production
Epidemiology
Neonatal Hypothermia
Thermoregulation in Neonatal Farm Animals
Response to Cold Stress
Cold-Induced Thermogenesis
Control of Heat Loss
Tissue Insulation.
External Insulation.
Thermoregulating Mechanisms
Heat Production
Cold Thermogenesis
Shivering Thermogenesis.
Nonshivering Thermogenesis.
Summit Metabolism.
Birth Weight and Summit Metabolism.
Factors Affecting Cold Thermogenesis
Malnutrition of the Dam During Late Gestation.
Postnatal Changes in Cold Thermogenesis
Risk Factors for Neonatal Hypothermia
Calves
Lambs
Piglets
Foals
Postshearing Hypothermia in Sheep
Cold Environments and Animal Production
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Neonatal Hypothermia
Shorn Sheep Hypothermia
Hypothermia Secondary to Other Diseases
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Hypothermic Newborn Lambs
Hypothermic Newborn Calves
Hypothermic Newborn Foals
Hypothermic Newborn Piglets
Control
Lambs and Calves
Piglets
Sick Foals
Further Reading
Reference
Cold Injury Frostbite and Chilblains
Etiology and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Hyperthermia Heat Stroke or Heat Exhaustion
Etiology
High Environmental Temperature
Other Causes of Hyperthermia
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Fever Pyrexia
Etiology
Septic Fevers
Aseptic Fevers
Pathogenesis
Endogenous Pyrogens
Effect of Pyrogens on the Hypothalamus
Febrile Response
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Antimicrobial Agents
Antipyretics
Further Reading
Acute Phase Response
Further Reading
References
Sepsis, Septicemia, and Viremia
Etiology: All Species
Neonatal Septicemias
Calves
Piglets
Foals
Lambs
Cattle
Sheep Young Lambs
Pigs
Horses, Donkeys, and Mules
Secondary Septicemias
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Clinical Findings
Neonatal Septicemia
Clinical Sepsis Score
Clinical Pathology
Blood Culture
Hemogram
Immunoglobulin Status
Biomarkers
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Toxemia, Endotoxemia, and Septic Shock
Etiology
Antigenic Toxins
Exotoxins
Enterotoxins
Endotoxins
Metabolic Toxins
Pathogenesis
Biochemical Mediators
Cardiopulmonary Function
Activation of the Renin?Angiotensin?Aldosterone System and Dysfunction of the Hypothalamic?Pituitary?Adrenal Axis
Leukocytes and Platelets
Hemostatic System
Thermoregulation
Gastrointestinal Function
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Protein Metabolism
Mineral Metabolism
Reproduction and Lactogenesis
Combined Effects on Body Systems
Endotoxin Tolerance
Hypersensitivity
Other Infectious Toxins
Clinical Findings
Acute Toxemia
Endotoxemia
Chronic Toxemia
Localized Infection
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Serum Biochemistry
Endotoxin
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Removal of Foci of Infection
Antimicrobial Agents
Aggressive Fluid Therapy
Hypertonic Solutions
Glucose and Insulin Administration
Inotropic Agents, Vasopressors, and Local Anesthetics
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Glucocorticoids
Polymyxin B
Hyperimmune Serum and Plasma Transfusion
Pentoxifylline and Ethyl Pyruvate
Anticoagulants
Control of Endotoxemia
Further Reading
References
Toxemia in the Recently Calved Cow
Puerperal Metritis in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Vaginal/Uterine Fluid
Other Samples and Tests
Necropsy Findings
Fat Cow Syndrome
Acute Diffuse Peritonitis
Peracute and Acute Mastitis
Treatment
Conservative Therapy
Antimicrobial Agents
Intrauterine Medication
Ancillary Treatment and Control
Identification of Affected Cows
Further Reading
References
Hypovolemic, Hemorrhagic, Maldistributive, and Obstructive Shock
Etiology
Hypovolemic Shock
Hemorrhagic Shock
Cattle, Sheep, and Goats
Horses
Pigs
Maldistributive Shock
Obstructive Shock
Pathogenesis
Hypovolemic Shock
Hemorrhagic Shock
Maldistributive Shock
Obstructive Shock
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Monitoring in Shock
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Identification of Cause
Hypovolemic and Maldistributive Shock
Isotonic Crystalloid Solutions
Hypertonic Saline Solution
Colloids
Hemorrhagic Shock
Obstructive Shock
Ancillary Treatment
Corticosteroids
Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
Antibiotic Therapy
Vasoconstrictors and Vasodilators
Immunotherapy
Further Reading
References
Localized Infections
Etiology
Bacterial Causes of Localized Infection
Portal of Entry
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Sample of Lesion for Culture and Staining
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Drainage of Abscesses
Antimicrobial Agents
References
Pain
The Problem of Pain
Advances in Attitude Toward Pain
Etiology
Cutaneous or Superficial Pain
Visceral Pain
Musculoskeletal Somatic Pain
Pathogenesis
Central Hypersensitivity and Preemptive Analgesia
Clinical Findings
Physiologic Responses
Behavioral Responses
Elicitation of Pain by the Veterinarian
Periodicity and Duration of Pain
Treatment
Analgesia
Analgesic Agents
Local Anesthetic Agents
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Flunixin Meglumine
Ketoprofen
Phenylbutazone
Meloxicam
Salicylates
Carprofen
Diclofenac
α2-Agonists
Xylazine
Narcotic Analgesics
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists
Vanilloids
γ-Aminobutyric Acid Analogs
Balanced Multimodal Analgesia
Administration Routes
Supportive Therapy
Further Reading
References
Stress
Causes of Stress
Pathogenesis
Stress and Road Transportation
Other Possible Sources of Stress
Clinical Pathology
Stress Syndromes
Stress-Related Psychosomatic Disease
Stress and Susceptibility to Infection
Stress and Animal Welfare
Stress and Metabolic Disease
Stress and Its Effect on Economic Performance
Management of Stress
Further Reading
References
Disturbances of Appetite, Food Intake, and Nutritional Status
Thirst
Polyphagia
Anophagia or Aphagia
Further Reading
Reference
Pica or Allotriophagia
Cannibalism
Infantophagia
Significance of Pica
Starvation
Inanition Malnutrition
Further Reading
References
Weight Loss or Failure to Gain Weight Ill-Thrift
Nutritional Causes
Excessive Loss of Protein and Carbohydrates
Faulty Digestion, Absorption, or Metabolism
Shortfalls in Performance
Further Reading
References
Unthriftiness in Weaner Sheep Weaner Ill-Thrift
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical and Necropsy Findings
Further Reading
References
Porcine Failure to Thrive
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Treatment
Control
References
Physical Exercise and Associated Disorders
Further Reading
Exercise-Associated Diseases
Exhaustion
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Treatment
Prevention
References
Poor Racing Performance and Exercise Intolerance in Horses
Approach to the Horse With Exercise Intolerance
History
Clinical Examination
Laboratory Testing
Exercise Stress Testing
Causes of Exercise Intolerance or Poor Performance
Musculoskeletal System
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Upper Airways See Obstructive Diseases of the Equine Larynx
Lower Airways
Hematologic and Biochemical Abnormalities
Anemia
Hypoproteinemia
Electrolyte Abnormalities
Nervous System Disease
Miscellaneous
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Sudden or Unexpected Death
Sudden or Unexpected Death in Single Animals
Spontaneous Internal Hemorrhage
Rupture of Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm
Peracute Endogenous Toxemia
Transportation Stress
Trauma
Gastrointestinal Conditions
Iatrogenic Deaths
Sudden Death in Horses
Sudden or Unexpected Death in a Group of Animals
Lightning Strike or Electrocution
Nutritional Deficiency and Poisoning
Access to Potent Poisons
Diseases Associated With Infectious Agents
Neonatal and Young Animals
Anaphylaxis
Procedure for Investigation of Sudden Death
Further Reading
References
Cyanobacteria Blue-Green Algae Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Microcystins
Anatoxins
Anatoxin-a
Homoanatoxin-a
Anatoxin-as
Various Freshwater Toxins
Clinical Findings
Microcystins
Anatoxins
Clinical Pathology
Microcystins
Anatoxins
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Prevent the Ingestion of Toxins
Prevent the Addition of Nutrients to Water
Further Reading
References
Plants Causing Sudden Death Without Cardiomyopathy
Diseases Associated With Physical Agents
Lightning Strike and Electrocution
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Stray Voltage
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Behavioral Changes
Effects on Production and Disease
Further Reading
References
Environmental Pollutants and Noise
Pollution From Outside the Farm
Pollution From Farms
Noise
References
Wind Farms and Electric and Magnetic Fields
Further Reading
Radiation Injury
Etiology
Epidemiology
Incidence and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Animal
Nature of Radiation
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Syndrome
Subacute Syndrome
Chronic Exposure
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Control
References
Volcanic Eruptions
Blast and Gas Damage
Ash Hazards
Toxic Chemicals
Physical Properties
Long-Term Effects
References
Bushfire Grass fire Injury Thermal Burns
Etiology
Epidemiology
Forest Fires
Grass Fires
Barn Fires
Clinical Findings
Burn Injury
Treatment
Decision Criteria
Skin Burns
Smoke Inhalation
Further Reading
Diagnosis of Inherited Disease
Diagnosis
Control of Inherited Disease
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals
References
5 Disturbances of Free Water, Electrolytes, Acid-Base Balance, and Oncotic Pressure
Dehydration
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Water Intoxication
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Postmortem Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Electrolyte Imbalances
Hyponatremia
Hypernatremia
Hypochloremia
Hypokalemia
Hyperkalemia
Hypocalcemia
Hypophospatemia
Hypomagnesemia
Further Reading
References
Acid-Base Imbalance
Acidemia
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Alkalemia
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Oncotic Pressure and Edema
Etiology
Decreased Plasma Oncotic Pressure
Increased Hydrostatic Pressure
Increased Capillary Permeability
Obstruction to Lymphatic Flow
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Naturally Occurring Combined Abnormalities of Free Water, Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance, and Oncotic Pressure
Nature of the Disease and History
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Packed Cell Volume and Total Serum Protein or Plasma Protein
Total CO2
Blood Gas and pH Analysis
Blood or Plasma l-Lactate Concentration
Serum Electrolytes
Urea and Creatinine
Blood or Plasma Glucose
Anion Gap
Strong Ion Gap
Osmolal Gap
Arterial, Jugular, or Central Venous Blood Pressure
Total Body Water
Further Reading
References
Principles of Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
Calculation of Electrolyte Requirements
Types of Intravenous Fluid
Crystalloid Solutions
Isotonic, Hypertonic, and Hypotonic Crystalloid Solutions
Hypotonic Crystalloid Solutions
Isotonic Crystalloid Solutions
Hypertonic Crystalloid Solutions
Colloid Solutions
Practical Administration of Electrolyte Solutions
Quantity of Fluids Required and Routes of Administration
Parenteral Fluid Therapy
Rate of Administration
Intravenous Catheters and Complications
Auricular Vein of Cattle and Calves
Cecal Catheters in Horses
Thrombophlebitis
Oral Fluid Therapy
Oral Fluid Therapy in Calves and Adult Cattle
Oral Fluid Therapy in Horses
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy in Newborn Piglets and Lambs
Parenteral Nutrition
Further Reading
References
6 Practical Antimicrobial Therapeutics
Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy
Identification of the Infection by Clinical Examination
Taking Samples for Diagnosis
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
Rationale
Susceptibility Test Methods
Tube Susceptibility Tests
Disk Susceptibility Tests
Microtiter Techniques
Other Considerations
Flaws and Limitations of Culture Susceptibility Testing
Further Reading
Antibiotic Resistance
Further Reading
Ways to Minimize or Avoid the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance
Avoiding Antimicrobial Resistance Three Ds Approach
Antibiotic Metaphylaxis to Control Respiratory Disease
Further Reading
Practical Usage of Antimicrobial Drugs
Antibiotic Dosage: the Recommended Dose
Routes of Administration
Intravenous Injection
Intramuscular Injection
Intraperitoneal Injection
Subcutaneous Injection
Oral Administration
Contamination of Feedstuffs
Water Medication of Pigs
Water Medication in Cattle
Dietary Medication
Ionophores
Other Routes
Further Reading
Drug Distribution
Absorption
Distribution
Pharmacokinetic Principles for Antimicrobial Usage
Duration of Treatment
Drug Combinations
Further Reading
Additional Factors Determining Selection of Agents
Cost
Ease of Administration
Toxicity
Bactericidal or Bacteriostatic Antimicrobials
Postantibiotic Effect
Concentration-Dependent Killing
Time-Dependent Killing
Drug Deterioration
Unfavorable Response to Therapy
Drug Withdrawal Requirements and Residue Avoidance
Label Dose and Extralabel Use
Extralabel Use
Withdrawal Periods
Residue Testing
Testing for Compliance
Causes of Residue Violations in Milk
Causes of Residue Violations in Beef Cattle
Causes of Residue Violations in Swine
Type of Therapy
Approved Drugs
Classification of Antimicrobial Agents: Mechanisms of Action and Major Side Effects
Aminoglycosides and Aminocyclitols
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
β-Lactam Antibiotics: Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and β-Lactamase Inhibitors
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity and Clinical Considerations
Toxicity
Chloramphenicol
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
Chloramphenicol Analogs
Toxicity
Fluoroquinolones
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
Lincosamides
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
Macrolides
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
Sulfonamides
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity and Clinical Considerations
Precautions and Contraindications
Tetracyclines
Mechanism of Action
Toxicity
Miscellaneous Antibiotics
Bacitracin
Carbadox
Dapsone
Metronidazole
Nitrofurans e.g., Nitrofurantoin, Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone
Novobiocin
Polymyxins
Rifampin
Vancomycin
Virginiamycin
Further Reading
7 Diseases of the Alimentary Tract
Principles of Alimentary Tract Dysfunction
Motor Function
Normal Gastrointestinal Motility
Hypermotility and Hypomotility
Distension
Abdominal Pain
Dehydration and Shock
Secretory Function
Digestive Function
Absorptive Function
Manifestations of Alimentary Tract Dysfunction
Abnormalities of Prehension, Mastication, and Swallowing
Causes of Dysphagia and Inability to Swallow
Drooling of Saliva and Excessive Salivation
Local Causes of Drooling
Systemic Causes of Excessive Salivation
Vomiting and Regurgitation
Vomiting
Projectile Vomiting
True Vomiting
Regurgitation
Diarrhea, Constipation, and Scant Feces
Diarrhea
Malabsorption Syndromes
Constipation
Scant Feces
Ileus Adynamic and Dynamic Ileus
Alimentary Tract Hemorrhage
Abdominal Pain
Horses
Cattle
Common Causes of Alimentary Tract Pain
Horses
Cattle
Tenesmus
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Shock and Dehydration
Abdominal Distension
Abnormal Nutrition
Special Examination
Nasogastric Intubation
Rumen of Cattle
Decompression of Distended Rumen
Decompression of the Horse’s Stomach
Medical Imaging
Radiography
Abdominal Ultrasonography
Horse
Cattle
Endoscopy
Laparoscopy
Exploratory Laparotomy Celiotomy
Tests of Digestion and Absorption
Glucose Absorption Test
Starch Digestion Test
Lactose Digestion Test
Xylose Absorption Test
Sucrose Absorption Test
Radioactive Isotopes
Abdominocentesis for Peritoneal Fluid
Equine and Bovine Peritoneal Fluid
Specific Properties of Peritoneal Fluid Normal and Abnormal
Color
Cellular and Other Properties
Cells
Abdominocentesis in Horses
Risks
Abdominocentesis in Cattle
Intestinal and Liver Biopsy
Principles of Treatment in Alimentary Tract Disease
Relief of Abdominal Pain
Relief of Distension
Replacement of Fluids and Electrolytes
Correction of Abnormal Motility
Increased Motility
Decreased Motility
Metoclopramide
Cisapride
Xylazine and Naloxone
Bethanechol and Neostigmine
Relief of Tenesmus
Reconstitution of Rumen Flora and Correction of Acidity OR Alkalinity
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Buccal Cavity and Associated Organs
Diseases of the Muzzle
Stomatitis
Etiology
Physical Agents
Chemical Agents
Infectious Agents
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Bullous Stomatitis
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Diseases of the Teeth
Etiology
Congenital Defects
Dental Fluorosis
Enamel Erosion
Premature Wear and Loss of Teeth in Sheep Periodontal Disease
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
References
Diseases of the Parotid Salivary Glands
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Diseases of the Pharynx and Esophagus
Pharyngitis
Etiology
Physical Causes
Infectious Causes
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Pharyngeal Obstruction
Etiology
Foreign Bodies
Tissue Swellings
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Pharyngeal Paralysis
Etiology
Peripheral Nerve Injury
Secondary to Specific Diseases
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Reference
Esophagitis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Esophageal Rupture
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Esophageal Obstruction
Etiology
Intraluminal Obstructions
Extraluminal Obstructions
Esophageal Paralysis
Megaesophagus
Esophageal Strictures
Other Causes of Obstruction
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Obstruction or Choke
Cattle
Horse
Chronic Obstruction
Complications Following Esophageal Obstruction
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Conservative Approach
Sedation
Pass a Stomach Tube and Allow Object to Move Into Stomach
Removal by Endoscope
Manual Removal Through Oral Cavity in Cattle
General Anesthesia in the Horse
Esophageal Lavage in the Horse
Surgical Removal of Foreign Bodies
Repeated Siphonage in Chronic Cases
Cervical Esophagostomy Alimentation
Antimicrobial Administration
References
Diseases of the Nonruminant Stomach and Intestines
Gastritis
Etiology
Cattle and Sheep
Physical Agents
Chemical Agents
Infectious Agents
Metazoan Agents
Pigs
Physical Agents
Chemical Agents
Infectious Agents
Metazoan Agents
Horses
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Gastritis
Chronic Gastritis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Enteritis Including Malabsorption, Enteropathy, and Diarrhea
Etiology and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Normal Intestinal Absorption
Mechanisms of Diarrhea
Osmotic Diarrhea
Exudative Diarrhea
Secretory Diarrhea
Abnormal Intestinal Motility
Location of Lesion
Dehydration, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalance
Chronic Enteritis
Replacement of Villous Epithelial Cells
Role of Neutrophils in Intestinal Mucosal Injury
Intestinal Motility in Enteritis
Concurrent Gastritis
Effects of Enteritis on Pharmacodynamics of Drugs
Clinical Findings
Systemic Effects
Intestinal Sounds in Enteritis
Chronic Enteritis
Clinical Pathology
Fecal Examination
Intestinal Tissue Samples
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Digestion/Absorption Tests
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Removal of Causative Agent
Antimicrobials
Mass Medication of Feed and Water Supplies
Alteration of the Diet
Fluids and Electrolytes
Intestinal Protectants and Adsorbents
Antidiarrheal Drugs
Antimotility Drugs
Antisecretory Drugs
Control
Intestinal Hypermotility
Dietary Diarrhea
Etiology
Milk Replacers
Overfeeding of Milk
Change of Diet
Pathogenesis
Digestion of Milk
Milk Replacers and Diarrhea
Clinical Findings
Nursing Beef Calves
Hand-Fed Dairy Calves
Milk-Replacer Diarrhea
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Alter Diet of Hand-Fed Calves
Monitor Beef Calves With Dietary Diarrhea
Reference
Abdominal FAT Necrosis Lipomatosis
References
Diseases of the Peritoneum
Peritonitis
Etiology
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Sheep
Goats
All Species
Pathogenesis
Toxemia and Septicemia
Shock and Hemorrhage
Abdominal Pain
Paralytic Ileus
Accumulation of Fluid Exudate
Adhesions
Clinical Findings
Acute and Subacute Peritonitis
Inappetence and Anorexia
Toxemia and Fever
Feces
Alimentary Tract Stasis
Abdominal Pain Evidenced by Posture and Movement
Abdominal Pain as Evidenced by Deep Palpation
Rectal Examination
Peracute Diffuse Peritonitis
Chronic Peritonitis
Cattle
Horses
Diagnostic Medical Imaging
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Abdominocentesis and Peritoneal Fluid
Septic Peritonitis in the Horse
Peritonitis in Cattle
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Prognosis
Case?Fatality Rate in Horses
Treatment
Antimicrobials
Fluid and Electrolytes
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Lavage
Prevention of Adhesions
References
Abdominal Diseases of the Horse Including Colic and Diarrhea
General Principles
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Horse Characteristics
Age
Sex
Breed
Diet and Feeding Practices
Management
Watering
Housing
Exercise
Season and Weather
Medical History
Parasite Control
Importance
Pathogenesis
Pain
Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
Ischemia of the Intestinal Wall
Endotoxemia
Shock
Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
Overview of the Pathogenesis of Common Colics
Simple Obstructive
Obstructive and Strangulating
Infarctive
Inflammatory
Clinical Findings
Visual Examination
Behavior
Posture
Abdomen Size
Vomiting
Defecation and Feces
Physical Examination
Heart and Respiratory Rates
Mucous Membranes and Extremities
Auscultation and Percussion
Rectal Examination
Normal Anatomy
Abnormal Findings
Nasogastric Intubation
Ancillary Diagnostic Techniques
Ultrasonography
Radiology
Arterial Blood Pressure
Course of the Disease
Clinical Pathology
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Acid-Base Status
Abdominocentesis
Protocol for Evaluating a Colic Patient
Behavior
Clinical and Clinicopathologic Observations
When to Refer the Patient
Surgery
Prognosis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Medical Treatment
Analgesia
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
α-2 Agonists
Opiates
Other Agents
Prophylaxis and Treatment of Endotoxemia
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
Intestinal Lubricants and Fecal Softeners
Other Treatments
Trocarization
Management of Field Colic
Surgery
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Colic in the Pregnant and Postparturient Mare
Further Reading
References
Colic in Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Findings
Ancillary Diagnostic Tests
Diagnostic Imaging
Endoscopy
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Surgical Treatment
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Gastric Dilation in the Horse
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Gastric Impaction IN Horses
Further Reading
References
Gastric Gastroduodenal Ulcer in Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Age and Sex
Stress and Disease
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
References
Gastric Ulcer in Adult Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Lesions of the Squamous Versus Glandular Mucosa
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Management and Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Acid Suppression
Omeprazole
Cimetidine
Ranitidine and Famotidine
Gastric Antacids
Protectants and Other Treatments
Management Changes
Overview of Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Intestinal Obstruction IN Horses
Small-Intestinal Obstruction in Horses
Etiology
Obstruction With Infarction
Obstruction Without Infarction
Functional Obstruction
Epidemiology
Intestinal Herniation Through the Epiploic Foramen
Pedunculated Lipomas
Inguinal Hernias
Intussusception
Foreign Body
Impaction
Mesenteric Rents
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Disease: Infarctive Lesions
Subacute Cases: Noninfarctive Lesions
Intussusception of the Small Intestine
Volvulus of the Small Intestine
Strangulated Inguinal Hernia
Strangulated Diaphragmatic Hernia
Epiploic Foramen Entrapment
Functional Obstruction
Foreign Body
Ileocecal Valve Impaction
Idiopathic Muscular Hypertrophy Terminal Ileal Hypertrophy
Caudal Abdominal Obstructions
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Duodenitis-Proximal Jejunitis Anterior Enteritis, Proximal Enteritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
References
Diseases of the Cecum
Etiology
Epidemiology
Cecal Impaction
Cecal Perforation or Rupture
Cecocecal or Cecocolic Intussusceptions
Cecal Torsion
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cecal Distension and Impaction
Perforation and Rupture
Intussusception
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Displacement and/or Volvulus of the Large Ascending Colon
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Left Dorsal Displacement Renosplenic Entrapment
Right Dorsal Displacement
Volvulus
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Left Displacement
Right Dorsal Displacement and Colon Volvulus
References
Impaction of the Large Ascending Colon of Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Enteroliths and Fecaliths
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Sand Colic
Further Reading
References
Right Dorsal Colitis
Further Reading
References
Small Colon Obstruction
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Nonstrangulating Lesions
Strangulating Lesions
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Small-Colon Impaction
Further Reading
References
Spasmodic Colic
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Intestinal Tympany in Horses
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Verminous Mesenteric Arteritis Verminous Aneurysm and Thromboembolic Colic
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Retroperitoneal Abscess Internal Abdominal Abscess, Chronic Peritonitis, and Omental Bursitis
Treatment
Reference
Rectal Tears
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Prognosis
Treatment
Immediate Care
Grade I and II Tears
Grade III Tears
Grade IV Tears
Prevention
References
Acute Diarrhea of Suckling Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Lesions
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Acute Diarrhea of Adult Nonsuckling Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Stress
Celiotomy
Antibiotic Administration
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Necropsy
Treatment
Restoration of Hydration
Electrolyte and Acid-Base Status
Antimicrobial Therapy
Prophylaxis and Treatment of Endotoxemia/Toxemia and Systemic Inflammatory Response
Binding of Toxins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Control
Further Reading
References
Chronic Undifferentiated Diarrhea of Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Specific Treatments
Symptomatic and Supportive Treatments
Control
References
Idiopathic Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of Horses
References
Granulomatous Enteritis of Horses
Further Reading
References
Lymphocytic-Plasmacytic Enterocolitis
Further Reading
Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis
References
Equine Grass Sickness Equine Dysautonomia, Grass Disease, and Mal Secco
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pasture and Soil Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Cases
Subacute Cases
Chronic Cases
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Intestinal Hyperammonemia
Further Reading
References
Abdominal Diseases of the Pig Including Diarrhea
Acute Gastric Dilatation IN Pigs
Acute Gastric Volvulus IN Sows
Gastric Ulcers and Hyperkeratosis of Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Dietary Risk Factors
Finely Ground Feed
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Gastric Bacteria
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Noninfectious Intestinal Disease of Swine
Intestinal Reflux
Diagnosis
Intestinal Obstruction IN Pigs
Etiology
Clinical Findings
Impaction of the Large Intestine of Pigs
Etiology
Clinical Findings
Intestinal Tympany IN Pigs
Etiology
Osseus Metaplasia
Intestinal Hemorrhage Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Treatment
Control
Reference
Diverticulitis and Ileitis of Pigs
Rectal Prolapse
Rectal Prolapse IN Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Pathology
Treatment
Control
Rectal Stricture
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Treatment
Bacterial and Viral Diseases of the Alimentary Tract
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence and Occurrence of Infection
Belgium
Canada
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Italy
Japan
The Netherlands
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Thailand
United Kingdom
United States
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rate
Methods of Transmission and Sources of Infection
Shedding and the Carrier State
Risk Factors Predisposing to Clinical Disease
Animal Risk Factors
Genetic Resistance to Salmonellosis in Domestic Animals
Salmonella Choleraesuis
Subclinical Infections
Immune Mechanisms
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Farming Practice in General
Housed Animals
Contaminated Feedstuffs
Introduction of the Infection to a Farm
Pathogen Risk Factors
Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella
Zoonotic Implications From Pigs
Salmonella Serovar Typhimurium DT104
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Infection
Septicemia, Bacteremia, and the Carrier State
Enteritis
Clinical Findings
Porcine Salmonellosis
Septicemia
Acute Enteritis
Chronic Enteritis
Clinical Pathology
Bacterial Culture and Detection
Fecal Culture
Multiple Fecal Cultures
DNA Probes
Serology
Serum Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Indirect Tests
Herd Diagnosis
Detection of Clinically Normal Carrier Animals
Determination of Prevalence of Infection in Population of Animals
Necropsy Findings
Septicemia
Acute Enteritis
Chronic Enteritis
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Primary Treatment: Antimicrobial Therapy
Control
Preventing Infection From Entering the Herd Biosecurity
Increased Hygiene to Prevent Intraherd Spread
Reducing Exposure to Pathogens
Avoiding Increasing Susceptibility to Pathogens
Monitoring Effectiveness of the Infectious Disease Control Program
Feed Interventions to Aid the Pigs’ Defenses
Physical Form of the Feed
Organic Acids
Feed Withdrawal
Other Options
Immunization
Salmonella Vaccinology
Monitoring
Nationwide Surveillance and Control Programs
Feedstuffs
Breeder and Multiplier Herds
Weaner Producers
Slaughter Pigs
Slurry
At Abattoir
References
Intestinal Clostridiosis in the Pig
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Bacteriology
Histology
Treatment
Control
References
Escherichia coli Infections in Weaned Pigs
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Verotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli
Attaching and Effacing Escherichia coli
O157 in Pigs
Edema Disease Gut Edema, Escherichia Coli Enterotoxemia
Etiology
Inheritance of Susceptibility to ED
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Postweaning Diarrhea of Pigs Coliform Gastroenteritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Resistance and E. Coli
Control
Further Reading
References
Campylobacteriosis in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogen Risk Factors
Antimicrobial Resistance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Porcine Proliferative Enteropathy
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Methods of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Antimicrobials
Vaccines
References
Brachyspiral Colitis Swine Dysentery, Porcine Spirochetal Colitis and Nonspecific Colitis
Swine Dysentery
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Methods of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Immunity
Clinical Pathology
Detection and Culture of Organism
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Choice of Antimicrobials
Failure to Respond to Therapy
Cleaning and Disinfection
Control
Control of Infection/Limitation of Reinfection
Mass Medication and Sanitation Program Without Depopulation
Dietary Modification
Depopulation and Repopulation
Biosecurity
Vaccines
References
Brachyspira Hampsonii
References
Nonspecific Colitis in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Porcine Intestinal Spirochetosis Spirochetal Colitis, Porcine Colitis, and Porcine Colonic Spirochetosis and Nonspecific Colitis
Introduction
Etiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Transmission
Managemental and Environmental Factors
Feed
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pathology
Immunology
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
References
Yersiniosis in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Reference
Viral Diarrhea in Neonatal Pigs
Overview of Viral Diarrhea
References
Porcine Rotaviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Immunity
Treatment
Control
References
Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Porcine Adenoviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Porcine Calciviruses
References
Porcine Sapoviruses
References
Porcine Norovirus
References
Porcine Astroviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Porcine Torovirus
References
Porcine Orbiviruses
Porcine Picobirnaviruses
Reference
Porcine Kobuviruses
References
Porcine New Virus
References
Porcine Bocavirus
References
A New Neonatal Diarrhea Syndrome
References
Transmissible Gastroenteritis in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Level of Herd Immunity.
Herd Size.
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Porcine Respiratory Coronaviruses
Methods of Transmission
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Losses
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Piglets
Older Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Serum Biochemistry
Detection of the Virus
DNA Probe
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Control During and After an Outbreak
Isolation of Sows Due to Farrow
Discontinuation of Breeding Stock Sales and Purchases
Partial Depopulation and Culling
Planned Exposure to Virulent Virus
Biosecurity and Acquisition of Replacement Breeding Stock
All-in, All-out Management System
Complete Depopulation and Repopulation or Establishment of New Herd
TGEv Vaccines and Vaccination
Vaccination of Pregnant Sows
TGE Vaccines
Vaccine Schedule
Subunit TGEv Vaccine
Immunity to PRCV
References
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pathogenesis
Immunity
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Swine Vesicular Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Vesicular Exanthema of Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Salmonellosis in Ruminants and Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Occurrence
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Carrier State
Risk Factors Predisposing to Clinical Disease
Animal Risk Factors
Genetic Resistance to Salmonellosis in Domestic Animals
Dairy Cattle
Beef Cattle Herds and Feedlots
Sheep
Horses
Immune Mechanisms
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Contaminated Feedstuffs
Pathogen Risk Factors
Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella
Zoonotic Implications
Salmonella Typhimurium DT104
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Infection
Septicemia, Bacteremia, and the Carrier State
Enteritis
Abomasitis
Abortion
Terminal Dry Gangrene, Osteitis, and Polyarthritis
Clinical Findings
Septicemia
Acute Enteritis
Chronic Enteritis
Bovine Salmonellosis
Ovine and Caprine Salmonellosis
Equine Salmonellosis
Clinical Pathology
Bacterial Culture
Preenrichment Media
Enrichment Media
Selective Plating Media
DNA Recognition and Immunologic Methods
Serology
Serum Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Laboratory Diagnosis in a Suspected Sick Animal
Herd Diagnosis
Detection of Clinically Normal Carrier Animals
Determination of Prevalence of Infection in Population of Animals
Necropsy Findings
Septicemia
Acute Enteritis
Chronic Enteritis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Primary Treatment: Antimicrobial Therapy
Ruminants
Horses
Supportive Therapy
Control
Prevention of Introduction of Infection Biosecurity
Limitation of Spread Within a Herd
Principles of Infectious Disease Control for Prevention of Nosocomial Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Diseases in Large-Animal Hospitals
Reducing Exposure to Pathogens
Avoiding Increasing Susceptibility to Pathogens
Monitoring Effectiveness of the Infectious Disease Control Program
Recommended Steps in Developing an Effective Infectious Disease Control Program for a Large-Animal Hospital
Animals Being Transported
Immunization
Salmonella Vaccinology
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Further Reading
References
Acute Undifferentiated Diarrhea of Newborn Farm Animals Particularly Calves and Piglets
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Colostrum
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Calves
Nutrition of the Dam in the Preparturient Period
Calving Management: Dairy
Calving Management: Beef
Colostrum Management: Dairy
Calf Housing and Feeding: Dairy
Calf Housing and Feeding: Beef
Disease Control and Management: Dairy
Other Environmental and Management Factors
Piglets
Lambs
Pathogen Risk Factors
Calves
Lambs and Goat Kids
Piglets
Foals
Clinical Management of Epidemics
Control
Further Reading
References
Enterocolitis Associated With Clostridium Difficile
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Horses
Pigs
Pathogen Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Horses
Pigs
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Proliferative Enteropathy in Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Equine Neorickettsiosis Equine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, Equine Ehrlichial Colitis, and Potomac Horse Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Equine Coronavirus Infection
References
Viral Diarrhea in Calves, Lambs, Kids, Piglets, and Foals
Etiology
Rotaviruses
Coronaviruses
Toroviruses
Parvovirus
Other Viruses and Mixed Infections
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Methods of Transmission
Immune Mechanisms
Calves: Bovine Rotavirus
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Concurrent Infections
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Method of Transmission
Immune Mechanisms
Bovine Coronavirus Calf Diarrhea
Parvovirus
Bovine Torovirus Breda Virus
Bovine Norovirus
Lambs and Kids
Rotavirus
Piglets
Porcine Rotavirus
Porcine Coronavirus
Foals
Equine Rotavirus
Pathogenesis
Rotavirus
Coronavirus
Porcine Coronavirus
Calicivirus-Like Norovirus Agent
Parvovirus
Clinical Findings
Calves
Lambs
Piglets
Foals
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Virus
Electron Microscopy
Immunofluorescence
Immunodiffusion and Electron Microscopy
Reverse Passive Hemagglutination, ELISA, and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Management and Colostral Intake
Vaccination
Oral Vaccines to Newborn Calves
Vaccination of Pregnant Dam for Passive Immunization of the Neonate Through Colostral Immunoglobulin
Experimental Studies of Maternal Bovine Rotavirus Vaccines
Bovine Coronavirus Vaccine
Commercial Bovine Rotavirus?Coronavirus and E. Coli F5 K99 Vaccines
Stored Colostrum
Systemic Colostral Antibody
Porcine Rotavirus Vaccines
Equine Rotavirus Vaccine
Subunit Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Vesicular Stomatitis Sore Mouth, Indiana Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Morbidity and Mortality
Method of Transmission
Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Immune Mechanisms
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Parasitic Diseases of the Alimentary Tract
Cryptosporidiosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence
Calves
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Foals
Farmed Deer
Source of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Concurrent Infections
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Prevention and Control
Treatment Options
Supportive Treatment
Management Strategies
Further Reading
References
Coccidiosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Calves
Adult Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Multiinfections
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogenesis
Life Cycle
Clinical Findings
Cattle and Sheep
Coccidiosis With Nervous Signs
Lambs
Piglets
Clinical Pathology
Fecal Oocyst Counts
Calves
Lambs
Piglets
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Calves and Lambs
Piglets
Control
Management of Environment
Lambs at Pasture
Feedlot Cattle and Lambs
Piglets
Coccidiostats
Antimicrobials
Ionophores
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Giardiasis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Pathogen Risk Factors
Animal and Management Risk Factors
Experimental Studies
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Ascariasis in Pigs, Horses, and Cattle
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Pigs
Horses
Buffalo Calves
Control
Further Reading
References
Strongylosis Cyathostominosis in Horses
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Oxyuris Equi Pinworm
Further Reading
References
Strongyloides Threadworm
References
Trichuris Whipworm
Chemotherapy
References
Parasitic Gastritis in Pigs
Etiology
Life Cycles
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
References
Gasterophilus spp. Infestation Botfly
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Treatment Recommendations
Further Reading
References
Thorny-Headed Worm IN Pigs Macracanthorhyncus hirudinaceus
Tapeworm Infestations
Larval Tapeworm Infestation
Further Reading
Reference
Adult Tapeworm Infestation
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxins Affecting the Alimentary Tract
Phosphorus Toxicosis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Samples for Analysis
Treatment
References
Arsenic Toxicosis
Etiology
Background Information
Relative Toxicities
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Dips and Sprays
Herbicides
Insecticidal Sprays
Leaded Gasoline
Insect Baits
Wood Preservatives
Metal-Bearing Ore Deposits
Pharmaceuticals and Growth Stimulants
Animal Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Mechanism of Action
Tissue Susceptibility
Time Lag
Percutaneous Absorption
Chronic Poisoning
Nervous Tissue Lesions
Clinical Findings
Gastrointestinal Syndrome
Peracute Cases
Acute and Subacute Cases
Chronic Cases
Neurological Syndrome
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Toxicology:
Histology:
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Molybdenum Toxicosis Molybdenosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Intoxication
Chronic Intoxication
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Amitraz Toxicosis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Propylene Glycol Toxicosis
Further Reading
Plant Materials Causing Physical Damage
Colic in horses from ingestion of indigestible fiber is associated with
Ruminal impaction in cattle is associated with ingestion of cuttings from
Further Reading
References
Plant Toxins Affecting the Alimentary Tract
Andromedotoxin
Anthraquinone
Colchicine
Irritant Diterpenoids
Irritant Oils
Lycorine
Podophyllin Poisoning
Protoanemonin Poisoning
Toxalbumins Lectins
Further Reading
References
Plants Unidentified Toxins Affecting the Gastrointestinal Tract
Diarrhea: Without Gastroenteritis as a Lesion
Diarrhea: With Gastroenteritis as a Lesion, Often With Abdominal Pain and Incoordination, Sometimes With Dysentery and Vomiting
Dysphagia
Esophageal Ulceration
Salivation With OR Without Stomatitis
Vomiting
Slaframine Toxicosis Slobbers, Black Patch Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Horses
Ruminants
Swine
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Cantharidin Toxicosis Blister Beetle Poisoning, Canthariasis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Neoplasms of the Alimentary Tract
Mouth
Pharynx and Esophagus
Stomach and Rumen
Intestines
References
Tumors of the Peritoneum
Reference
Congenital Defects of the Alimentary Tract
Harelip and Cleft Palate
Atresia of the Salivary Ducts
Agnathia, Micrognathia, and Brachygnathia
Persistence of the Right Aortic Arch
Choanal Atresia
Congenital Atresia of the Intestine and Anus
Intestinal Atresias
Atresia of the Terminal Colon
Atresia of the Anus
Multiple Organ Defects
Further Reading
References
Inherited Defects of the Alimentary Tract
Inherited Defects of the Mouth and Jaw
Cleft Palate
Jaw Deformity
Smooth Tongue Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta Linguae Bovis
Tongue Aplasia
Rectal Prolapse
Inherited Rectovaginal Constriction
Inherited Atresia of Alimentary Tract Segments
Lethal White Syndrome IN Foals and Lambs Intestinal Aganglionosis
References
8 Diseases of the Alimentary Tract?Ruminant
Diseases of the Forestomach of Ruminants
Anatomy and Physiology
Reticulorumen Motility
Primary Contraction Cycle
Control of Primary Contractions
Ruminal Atony
Hypomotility
Properties of Contractions
Extrinsic Control of Primary Contractions
Excitatory Inputs to the Gastric Center
Inhibitory Inputs to the Gastric Center
Fever
Endotoxemia
Pain
Distension of Forestomach
Ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids
Abomasal Disease
Effect of Depressant Drugs
Acid-Base Imbalance and Blood Glucose
Hormonal Control of Primary Contractions
Intrinsic Control of Primary Contractions
Treatment of Forestomach Hypomotility
Secondary Cycle Contraction and Eructation
Rumination
Esophageal Groove Closure
Ruminant Gastrointestinal Dysfunction
Further Reading
Special Examination of the Alimentary Tract and Abdomen of Cattle
History
Systemic State, Habitus, and Appetite
Oral Cavity and Esophagus
Inspection of the Abdomen
Distension of the Abdomen
Lavage of Distended Rumen
Left Side of Abdomen and Rumen
Inspection and Palpation
Nature of Rumen Contents
Auscultation of the Rumen and Left Flank
Auscultation of Rumen
Fluid-Tinkling or Fluid-Splashing Sounds
Right Side of Abdomen
Examination of Rumen Fluid
Analysis of Rumen Fluid
Palpation Per Rectum of the Abdomen
Gross Examination of Feces
Amount
Absence of or Scant Feces
Color
Odor
Consistency
Degree of Digestion
Other Substances in the Feces
Mucus
Fibrin
Detection of Abdominal Pain
Ultrasonography
Radiography
Endoscopy of the Rumen
Computed Tomography
Rumination Monitors
Serum Biomarkers of Gastrointestinal Function
Interpretation of Clinical Findings
Exploratory Laparotomy
Intussusception and Other Strangulation Obstructions of the Small Intestines
“Atypical? Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum
Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis
Laparoscopy
Clinical Examination of the Digestive Tract and Abdomen of the Calf
Abdominal Distension in Calves
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Rumen, Reticulum and Omasum
Simple Indigestion
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Spontaneous Recovery
Rumenatorics
Parasympathomimetics
Alkalinizing and Acidifying Agents
Reconstitution of Ruminal Microflora Rumen Transfaunation
Further Reading
References
Rumen Impaction Due to Indigestible Foreign Bodies
References
Indigestion in Calves Fed Milk Replacers Ruminal Drinkers
References
Acute Carbohydrate Engorgement of Ruminants Ruminal Lactic Acidosis, Rumen Overload and Subacute Ruminal Acidosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Previous Diet and Change of Ration
Accidental Consumption of Excess Carbohydrates
Feedlot Cattle
Beef Breeding Herds
Lamb Feedlots and Liquid-Fed Calves
Dairy Cattle Herds
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rates
Types and Toxic Amounts of Feeds
Pathogenesis
Changes in Rumen Microflora
Volatile Fatty Acids and Lactic Acid in the Rumen
Systemic Lactic Acidosis
Chemical and Mycotic Rumenitis
Hepatic Abscesses
Laminitis
Other Toxic Substances Produced
Experimental Lactic Acidosis
Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Dairy Cattle
Clinical Findings
Speed of Onset and Severity
Individual Animals
Ultrasonography
Mycotic Rumenitis
Complications
Subacute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Ruminal Fluid pH
Ruminal Protozoa
Serum Biochemistry
Fecal pH
Urine pH
Low Milk-Fat Percentage
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Triage
Rumenotomy
Intravenous Sodium Bicarbonate and Fluid Therapy
Rumen Lavage
Intraruminal Alkalinizing Agents
Ruminal Transfaunation
Ancillary Therapy
Monitor Response to Therapy
Control and Prevention
Total Mixed Rations
Small Incremental Increases in Concentrate
Feedlot Starter Rations
Dietary Buffers
Ionophores
Subacute Ruminal Acidosis in Dairy Cattle
Limiting the Intake of Rapidly Fermentable Carbohydrates
Providing Adequate Ruminal Buffering
Allowing for Ruminal Adaptation to High-Grain Diets
Feeding Management in Early Lactation
Vaccination Against Lactic Acidosis
Further Reading
References
Ruminal Parakeratosis
Ruminal Tympany Bloat
Etiology
Primary Ruminal Tympany Frothy Bloat
Pasture and Feedlot Bloat
Frothy Rumen Contents
Role of Saliva
Secondary Ruminal Tympany Free-Gas Bloat
Chronic Ruminal Tympany
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pasture Bloat
Feedlot Bloat
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Pasture Bloat
Feedlot Bloat
Risk Factors That Influence the Occurrence of Primary Ruminal Tympany
Dietary Risk Factors
Bloating Forages
Nonbloating Forages
Crop Maturity
Weather Risk Factors
Feedlot Bloat
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Primary Pasture or Feedlot Bloat
Secondary Bloat
Dyspnea and Tachycardia in Severe Bloat
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
First-Aid Emergency Measures
Emergency Rumenotomy
Trocar and Cannula
Promote Salivation
Stomach Tube
Feedlot Bloat
Antifoaming Agents
Return to Pasture or Feed
Control
Pasture Bloat
Management Strategies to Reduce Rate of Rumen Fermentation
Stage of Growth
Choice of Forages
Alternative Temperate Forages
Grazing Management
Grazing Patterns and Strip Grazing
Swathing and Wilting
Alfalfa Hay Bloat Prevention
Antifoaming Agents
Oils and Fats
Individual Drenching
Application of Oil to Pasture
Addition to Feed and Water
Application to Flanks
Types of Oil
Water-Soluble Feed Supplements
Synthetic Nonionic Surfactants
Polyoxythylene-Polyoxypropylene Block Polymer
Polyoxypropylene-Polyoxyethylene Glycol Surfactant Polymer Alfasure
Alcohol Ethoxylate Detergents
Ionophores
Controlled-Release Monensin Capsules
Liquid Formulation of Monensin
Feedlot Bloat
Roughage in Ration
Consistency of Grain
Antifoaming Agents
Dietary Salt
Genetic Control of Pasture Bloat
General Comments
Further Reading
Reference
Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Ingestion of Foreign Body
Penetration of Reticulum
Acute Local Peritonitis
Generalized Peritonitis and Extension of Disease
Clinical Findings
Acute Local Peritonitis
Chronic Local Peritonitis
Rectal Examination
Acute Diffuse Generalized Peritonitis
Sudden Death
Iatrogenic Reticulitis
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Plasma Protein, Fibrinogen, Acute Phase Reactants, and Coagulation Profile
Abdominocentesis and Peritoneal Fluid
Radiography of Cranial Abdomen and Reticulum
Ultrasonography of the Reticulum
Ultrasonography for Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis
Ultrasonography and Radiography of Cattle With Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis
Metal Detection
Laparoscopy
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Conservative Medical Therapy
Antimicrobials
Rumenotomy
Drainage of Reticular Abscesses
Choice of Treatment
Prevention
Reticular Magnets
Further Reading
References
Vagus Indigestion
Etiology
Complications of Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis
Vagal Nerve Injury and Dysfunction
Reticular Adhesions
Other Causes
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Anterior Functional Stenosis Achalasia
Posterior Functional Stenosis Achalasia
Metabolic Alkalosis and Abomasal Reflux
Postsurgical Complication in Abomasal Volvulus
Abomasal Impaction in Sheep
Clinical Findings
Ruminal Distension With Hypermotility
Ruminal Distension With Atony
Pyloric Obstruction and Abomasal Impaction
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Peritoneal Fluid
Serum Biochemistry
Ruminal Chloride Concentrations
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Rumen Lavage
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy and Laxatives
Rumenotomy
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Diaphragmatic Hernia
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Traumatic Reticulopericarditis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Pericardiocentesis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Prevention
Further Reading
Reference
Traumatic Reticulosplenitis and Reticulohepatitis
Impaction of the Omasum
References
Diseases of the Abomasum
Clinical Examination of the Abomasum
Physical Examination
Ultrasonography of the Abomasum
Abomasocentesis
Applied Anatomy and Pathophysiology of the Abomasum
Abomasal Reflux
Further Reading
References
Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Calves
Lactational Incidence Rate
Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Dietary Risk Factors
Prepartum Nutrition and Management
High-Level Grain Feeding
Dietary Crude Fiber
Animal Risk Factors
Breed and Age of Cow
Season of the Year
Influence of Weather
Milk Production
Late Pregnancy
Concurrent Diseases
Preexisting Subclinical Ketosis and Hepatic Lipidosis
Hypocalcemia
Metabolic Predictors of Left-Side Displacement of Abomasum
Genetic Predisposition
Miscellaneous Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance and Effects on Production and Survivorship
Pathogenesis
Abomasal Luminal Gas Pressure, Volume, and Perfusion in Cows With Left Displaced Abomasum or Abomasal Volvulus
Perforating Abomasal Ulceration
Clinical Findings
General Appearance and Ketosis
Status of Reticulorumen and Spontaneous Abomasal Sounds
Pings of the Left Displaced Abomasum
Acute Left Displaced Abomasum
Concurrent Perforating Abomasal Ulceration
Other Clinical Features
Ultrasound Examination
Rectal Examination
Secondary Ketosis and Hepatic Lipidosis
Atrial Fibrillation
Course of Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum
Unusual Cases of Left-Side Displacement
Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum in Calves
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Serum Biochemistry
Cowside Tests of Blood β-Hydroxybutyrate Concentration and Urinary Ketones
Peritoneal Fluid Analysis
Abomasocentesis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Open Surgical Techniques
Laparoscopic Techniques
Closed Suture Techniques
Prokinetic and Analgesic Administration
Survivorship Following Surgery to Correct Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum
Treatment of Ketosis
Rumen Transfaunation Following Surgery for Left-Side Displacement of the Abomasum
Control
Prepartum Nutrition and Management
Crude Fiber Intake
Monensin in Controlled-Release Capsule Prepartum
Genetic Selection
Further Reading
References
Right-Side Displacement of the Abomasum and Abomasal Volvulus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Incidence
Lactating Dairy Cows
Beef Cattle
Calves
Mature Bulls and Pregnant Cows
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Definition of Right Displaced Abomasum and Abomasal Volvulus
Dilatation and Displacement Phase
Volvulus Phase
Postsurgical Complication in Right-Side Displacement of the Abomasum or Abomasal Volvulus
Clinical Findings
Right Displaced Abomasum and Abomasal Volvulus Adult Cattle
Acute Abomasal Volvulus Calves
Postsurgical Complication in Abomasal Volvulus
Clinical Pathology
Serum Biochemistry
Urinalysis
Hemogram
Ultrasonography of Right Abdomen
Peritoneal Fluid Analysis
Abomasocentesis
Prognostic Indicators
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Surgical Correction
Prokinetic Administration
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
Oral Therapy
Deflation of Distended Abomasum in Calves
Control
Further Reading
References
Abomasal Impaction in Cattle
Etiology and Epidemiology
Primary Abomasal Impaction
Dietary Abomasal Impaction
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Surgery
Control
Primary Abomasal Impaction
Dietary Abomasal Impaction
References
Abomasal Impaction in Sheep and Goats Abomasal Emptying Defect
Reference
Abomasal Phytobezoars and Trichobezoars
Reference
Abomasal Ulcers of Cattle
Etiology
Primary Ulceration
Secondary Ulceration
Epidemiology
Primary Abomasal Ulcers
Lactating Dairy Cows
Mature Bulls and Feedlot Cattle
Hand-Fed Calves
Veal Calves
Sucking Beef Calves
Dietary Factors in Calves Fed Milk or Milk Replacer
Secondary Abomasal Ulcers
Pathogenesis
Type 1: Nonperforating Ulcer
Type 2: Ulcer Causing Severe Blood Loss
Type 3: Perforating Ulcer With Acute, Local Peritonitis
Type 4: Perforating Ulcer With Diffuse Peritonitis
Clinical Findings
Perforation of Ulcer
Nursing Beef Calves
Clinical Pathology
Melena
Hemogram
Plasma Gastrin and Pepsinogen Concentration
Microbiology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Blood Transfusions
Coagulants
Antacids
Histamine Type-2 Receptor Antagonists
Alkalinizing Agents
Kaolin and Pectin
Surgical Excision
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Omental Bursitis
Reference
Abomasal Bloat Tympany in Calves And Lambs
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Intestines of Ruminants
Small and Large Intestinal Obstruction in Cattle
Etiology and Epidemiology
Intestinal Accidents
Volvulus
Intussusception
Strangulation
Compression Stenosis
Cecal Dilatation
Luminal Blockages
External Pressure
Ileal Impaction in Cows
Fiber Balls or Phytobezoars
Trichobezoars Hairballs
“Rectal Paralysis?
Duodenal Ileus
Functional Obstructions
Pathogenesis
Physical Obstruction
Volvulus and Intussusception
Incarceration
Duodenal Ileus
Functional Obstruction
Clinical Findings
General Findings
Abdomen
Feces
Palpation Per Rectum
Duodenal Ileus
Volvulus of the Spiral Colon Mesenteric Root Volvulus
Lipomas and Fat Necrosis
Clinical Pathology
Serum Biochemistry
Hemogram
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Surgical Correction
Fluid Therapy
Antimicrobials
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs
Further Reading
References
Intestinal Obstruction in Sheep
Terminal Ileitis of Lambs
Cecal Dilatation and Cecocolic Volvulus in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Ultrasonographic Examination of the Cecum
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Medical Therapy
Surgical Correction
Further Reading
References
Bacterial Diseases of the Ruminant Alimentary Tract
Actinomycosis Lumpy Jaw
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Reference
Actinobacillosis Wooden Tongue
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Oral and Laryngeal Necrobacillosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission
Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Farm Animals and Zoonotic Implications
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Cattle
Prevalence of Infection in Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs at Slaughter
Sheep and Goats
Wildlife
Pigs
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Housing and Management Practices
Pathogen Risk Factors
Virulence Attributes and Mechanisms
Acid Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance
Methods of Transmission
Sources of Organism
Ruminants as Reservoirs
Other Species
Wild Birds
Flies
Environmental Sources
Water Supplies for Livestock
Feed Supplies
Manure
Soil
Animal-Holding Facilities
Immune Mechanisms
Zoonotic Implications
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Experimental Reproduction
Clinical Pathology
Control
Specific Strategies for Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at Preharvest Level
Animal Management Strategies
Water Systems and Runoff
Environmental Control of STEC
Diet Changes
Direct Antipathogen Strategies
Vaccination Against Escherichia coli O157:H7
Competitive Enhancement Strategies
Probiotics
Sodium Chlorate Supplementation
Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 During Slaughtering and Postharvest Stage
Meat Inspection Service and Surveillance
Postharvest Decontamination Techniques
Progress Made With Decontamination Processes
Irradiation
Consumer Education on Handling and Cooking Meat
Visitors to Animal Farms
Further Reading
References
Braxy Bradsot
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Enteric Disease Associated With Clostridium Perfringens
References
Enterotoxemia Associated With Clostridium Perfringens Type A
Enterocolitis in Horses
Equine Intestinal Clostridiosis
Enteritis in Piglets
Hemorrhagic Enterotoxemia and Hemolytic Disease in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats
Abomasal Ulcer
Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in Cattle
Further Reading
References
Enterotoxemia Associated With Clostridium Perfringens Types B, C, and E
Etiology
Epidemiology
Lamb Dysentery and Type C Enterotoxemia
Occurrence
Animal and Environmental Risk Factors
Necrotic Enteritis of Pigs
Occurrence
Animal and Environmental Risk Factors
Enterotoxemia in Foals
Enterotoxemia in Calves
Struck in Sheep
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Outbreaks
Long-Term Control
Further Reading
References
Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome, Hemorrhagic Jejunitis, or Jejunal Hematoma in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Serum Biochemistry
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Paratuberculosis Johne’s Disease: Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Wildlife and Exotic Species
Prevalence of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Age of Animal
Breed Incidence and Genetic Susceptibility
Other Diseases and Stressors
Herd Characteristics
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Care of the Newborn Calf
Calf Rearing
Soil Characteristics and Manure Handling
Pathogen Risk Factors
Survival and Dormancy of Organism in the Environment
Thermal Resistance of Organism
Economic Importance
Losses at National Dairy Industry Level
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Susceptibility to Infection
Immune Response and Spectrum
Clinical Findings
Stages of Disease
Stage One
Silent Infection.
Stage Two
Subclinical Disease.
Stage Three
Clinical Disease.
Stage Four
Advanced Clinical Disease.
Clinical Pathology
Diagnosis of MAP Infection
Culture or Detection of Organism
Bacteriologic Culture.
Pooled Fecal Samples and Culture.
DNA Probes and Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Culture of Milk and Blood.
Tests on Tissue Samples.
Serologic Tests
Complement Fixation Test.
Agar Gel Immunodiffusion.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Immunity Tests.
Summary of Diagnostic Testing
Diagnostic Strategies for Different Situations
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Principles of Control
Identification and Elimination of Infected Animals
Prevention of Introduction of Infected Animals Into the Herd
Prevention of Exposure of Susceptible Animals to the Infectious Agent
Dairy Herds
Hygiene
Dairy Calf Health Management
Beef Herds
Vaccination of Cattle
Control on a Countrywide Basis
Johne’s Disease Control in the United States
Education of the Producer
Risk Assessment and Disease Management Plan
Herd Testing and Herd Classification
Johne’s Disease Control in the Netherlands
Further Reading
References
Paratuberculosis Johne’s Disease: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and Camelids
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence, Morbidity, and Mortality
Sheep and Goats
Deer, Camelids, and Exotic Species
Prevalence and Source of Infection
Sheep
Methods of Transmission
Sheep
Deer
Risk Factors
Sheep and Management
Deer
Environmental Risk Factors
Soil Characteristics
Pathogen Risk Factors
Survival and Dormancy of Organism in the Environment
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Immune Response
Development of Lesions
Clinical Findings
Sheep and Goats
Other Species Deer, Camelids, and Bison
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Tests
Culture or Detection of Organism
Bacteriologic Examination.
Pooled Fecal Samples and Culture.
Genetic Probe.
Biopsy.
Serologic Tests
Tests of Immunity
Serum Biochemistry
Deer
Necropsy Findings
Sheep and Goats
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Rabbits
Treatment
Control
Control on a Flock Basis
Vaccination
Goats
Control on a Countrywide Basis
Further Reading
References
Viral Diseases of the Ruminant Alimentary Tract
Rinderpest Cattle Plague
Synopsis of the Disease
Steps Leading to Eradication
Lessons From the Eradication
Further Reading
References
Peste Des Petits Ruminants Goat Plague, or Kata
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rate
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors and Immune Mechanisms
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implication
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Bovine Viral Diarrhea, Mucosal Disease, and Bovine Pestivirus Disease Complex
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Other Ruminant Species
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rates
Methods of Transmission
Direct Contact
Indirect Contact
Airborne Transmission
Flies
Fomites
Artificial Insemination/Embryo Transfer
Vaccines Contaminated With Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Immunocompetent Nonpregnant Cattle Subclinical Bovine Viral Diarrhea
Peracute Bovine Viral Diarrhea
Thrombocytopenia and Hemorrhagic Syndrome
Diarrhea of Neonatal Calves
Meningoencephalitis
Immunosuppression
In Vivo Evidence of Immunosuppression.
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in the Feedlot
Ovarian Dysfunction
Immunocompetent Pregnant Cattle and Fetal Infections
Immunotolerant Persistently Infected Cattle
Clinical Findings
Inapparent or Subclinical Infection Bovine Virus Diarrhea
Acute Mucosal Disease
Chronic Mucosal Disease
Unthrifty Persistently Infected Calves
Peracute Bovine Virus Diarrhea
Thrombocytopenia and Hemorrhagic Disease
Reproductive Failure and Neonatal Disease
Congenital Defects in Calves
Clinical Pathology
Virus Isolation
Antigen Detection
Immunofluorescence or Immunohistochemistry.
Skin Biopsy.
Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplification
Serology
Serum Neutralization Test
Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Use of Laboratory Tests in the Herd
Acute Infections
Persistently Infected Animals
Prenatal Diagnosis of Persistent Infection
Herd Screening
Necropsy Findings
Acute Mucosal Disease
Peracute Bovine Viral Diarrhea
Chronic Mucosal Disease
Abortion
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control and Prevention
Identification and Elimination of Persistently Infected Animals From the Herd
Prevention of Introduction of Infection Into Herd Biosecurity
Immunization Programs and Biocontainment
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Vaccines
Modified-Live Virus-Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Vaccines
Inactivated Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Vaccines
Combination Vaccines
Efficacy of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Vaccines
Commercially Available Vaccines
Strategies for Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Vaccination Programs
Prevention of Fetal Infection in Dairy and Beef Herds
Postnatal Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infections
Vaccination Schedules
Beef Cow?Calf Herd
Beef Feedlot
Dairy Herd
Current Vaccination Practices
Eradication of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection Without Vaccination
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Control Programs in Different Geographic Regions and Countries
Scandinavian Countries
United Kingdom
Continental Europe
Further Reading
References
Winter Dysentery of Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rates
Methods of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Risk Factors
Host and Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Virus
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Bovine Papular Stomatitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Parasitic Diseases of the Ruminant Alimentary Tract
Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Ruminants
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
Choice of Anthelmintic
Control
Further Reading
References
Hemonchosis in Ruminants
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Bunostomosis Hookworm Disease in Ruminants
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
References
Oesophagostomosis Nodule Worm Disease in Ruminants and Pigs
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Chabertiosis
References
Stomach Fluke Disease Intestinal Amphistomosis
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxic Diseases of the Ruminant Alimentary Tract
Nonprotein Nitrogen Toxicosis Urea Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle and Sheep
Clinical Pathology
Cattle
Sheep
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Chemically Treated Natural Feeds
Formalin-Treated Grain
Caustic-Treated Grain
Ammoniated Forage
Newsprint
Sewage Sludge
Further Reading
Ammoniated feeds:
Caustics:
Newsprint:
Sewage sludge:
Reference
Diseases of the Ruminant Alimentary Tract of Unknown Cause
Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease of Sheep
Further Reading
Salivary Abomasum Disease
References
9 Diseases of the Liver
Diseases of the Liver: Introduction
Principles of Hepatic Dysfunction
Diffuse and Focal Hepatic Disease
Hepatic Dysfunction
Portal Circulation
Manifestations of Liver and Biliary Disease
Jaundice Icterus
Prehepatic or Hemolytic Jaundice
Hepatic or Hepatocellular Jaundice
Posthepatic Jaundice
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Edema and Emaciation
Diarrhea and Constipation
Photosensitization
Hemorrhagic Diathesis
Abdominal Pain
Alteration in Size of the Liver
Displacement of the Liver
Rupture of the Liver
Black Livers of Sheep
References
Special Examination of the Liver
Palpation and Percussion
Biopsy
Medical Imaging of the Liver
Ultrasonography
Radiography
Laboratory Tests for Hepatic Disease and Function
Hepatic Function Tests
Serum Bile Acids
Serum Bilirubin
Ammonia
Urea Nitrogen
Albumin
Serum Hepatic Enzyme Tests
Hepatic Enzyme Profile According to Species
Cattle
Calves
Horses
Further Reading
References
Principles of Treatment in Diseases of the Liver
Diffuse Diseases of the Liver
Hepatitis
Etiology and Epidemiology
Toxic Hepatitis
Poisonous Plants, Fungi, and Insects
Miscellaneous Farm Chemicals
Toxemia Perfusion Hepatitis
Infectious Hepatitis
Parasitic Hepatitis
Nutritional Hepatitis Trophopathic Hepatitis
Idiopathic Hepatosis and Cirrhosis
Congestive Hepatopathy
Portosystemic Vascular Anomaly
Pathogenesis
Liver Disease and Liver Failure
Intravascular Hemolysis in Equine Liver Disease
Clinical Findings
Portosystemic Shunts
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
Liver Abscess and Necrobacillosis of the Liver
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pathogen Risk Factors
Risk Factors in Grain-Fed Cattle
Management
Diet
Breed
Risk Factors in Other Farm Animals
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Feed Management
Prophylactic Antimicrobial Therapy
Vaccination
Control in Young Lambs
Further Reading
References
Bacillary Hemoglobinuria Red Water Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis Black Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Source of Infection
Other Species
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Cattle
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Clostridium novyi Infection
Etiology
Pathogenesis and Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Reference
Diseases Characterized by Systemic Involvement
Acute Hepatitis Postvaccinal Hepatitis of Horses Theiler’s Disease, Serum Hepatitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Hepatitis E Virus HEV
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Hepatic Diseases Associated With Trematodes
Fasciolosis Liver Fluke Disease
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Fasciolosis
Subacute Fasciolosis
Chronic Fasciolosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Acute Hepatic Fasciolosis
Chronic Hepatic Fasciolosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Fascioloides magna
Further Reading
References
Dicrocoelium
Further Reading
References
Diseases Associated With Major Phytotoxins
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Plant Factors
Human Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Hepatic Injury
Hepatic Encephalopathy
Toxemic Jaundice
Secondary Photosensitization
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Plants Causing Hepatic Injury Unidentified Toxin
Hepatic Injury-Dummy Syndrome Circling, Head Pressing, Compulsive Walking, and Blindness
Hepatic Injury: Jaundice and/or Photosensitization
Poisoning by Mycotoxins
Poisoning by Aflatoxins Aflatoxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Phomopsins Toxicosis Lupinosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Lesions
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Pithomycotoxicosis Sporidesmin Toxicity and Facial Eczema
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Plant Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Rubratoxin Toxicosis
Further Reading
Reference
Miscellaneous Fungi Causing Hepatic Damage Unidentified Toxin
Sawfly Larvae Lophyrtomin and Pergidin Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Lesions
Further Reading
References
Coal Tar Pitch Poisoning in Pigs
Etiology
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Focal Diseases of the Liver
Tumors of the Liver
Diseases of the Biliary System
Cholangiohepatitis in Horses
Diseases of the Pancreas
Pancreatitis
Diabetes Mellitus
Pancreatic Adenoma
Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
10 Diseases of the Cardiovascular System
Principles of Circulatory Failure
Heart Failure
Circuit Failure
Cardiac Reserve and Compensatory Mechanisms in Heart Failure
Cardiac Reserve and Heart Rate
Cardiac Reserve and Stroke Volume
Cardiac Reserve and Mixed Venous Oxygen Tension
Cardiac Reserve and Autonomic Nerve Activity
Cardiac Reserve in Cardiac Insufficiency
Measurement of Cardiac Reserve
Cardiac Enlargement
References
Manifestations of Circulatory Failure
Chronic Congestive Heart Failure
Etiology
Valvular Disease
Myocardial Disease
Congenital Anatomic Defects Producing Shunts
Hypertension
Pressure Load
Volume Load
Pumping Defects Systolic Failure
Filling Defects Diastolic Failure
Pathogenesis
Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure
Left-Sided Congestive Heart Failure
Clinical Findings
Right-Sided Congestive Heart Failure
Left-Sided Congestive Heart Failure
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Diuretics
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Stall Rest
Positive Inotropic Agents Dobutamine, Calcium, Cardiac Glycosides
Further Reading
References
Acute Heart Failure
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Special Examination of the Cardiovascular System
Physical Examination
Heart Sounds
First Heart Sound
Second Heart Sound
Third Heart Sound
Fourth Heart Sound
Sequence of Heart Sounds
Variation in Heart Sound Intensity
Heart Rate
Examination of the Arterial Pulse
Pulse Rate
Pulse Rhythm
Amplitude
Examination of the Jugular Vein
Percussion of the Thorax to Identify the Cardiac Dullness Area
Measurement of Jugular Venous Pressure
References
Measurement of Central Venous Pressure
References
Exercise Tolerance
Further Reading
Electrocardiography
Electrocardiograph
Depolarization and Repolarization
Lead Systems
Telemetry
Fetal Electrocardiography
Heart Rate Variability
Other Uses of the Electrocardiogram
Further Reading
References
Biomarkers of Myocardial Injury
Further Reading
References
Measurement of Arterial Blood Pressure
Measurement of Pulmonary Artery Blood Pressure
References
Echocardiography
Fetal Echocardiography
Further Reading
References
Radiographic and Angiocardiographic Examination
References
Phonocardiography
Reference
Cardiac Output
References
Cardiac Catheterization
Arrhythmias Dysrhythmias
Further Reading
References
Sinus Tachycardia, Sinus Bradycardia, and Physiologic Dysrhythmias
Sinus Tachycardia
Sinus Bradycardia
Physiologic Dysrhythmias
Reference
Arrhythmias With Normal Heart Rates or Bradycardia
Sinus Arrhythmia
Sinoatrial Block
Atrioventricular Block
First-Degree Atrioventricular Block
Second-Degree Atrioventricular Block
Third-Degree or Complete Heart Block
Premature Complexes
Atrial Premature Complexes
Junctional Premature Complexes
Ventricular Premature Complexes
References
Arrhythmias With Tachycardia
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation in the Horse
Lone Atrial Fibrillation
Secondary Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Fibrillation in the Cow
Atrial Fibrillation in the Sheep and Goat
Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation
Horses
Ruminants
Paroxysmal Tachycardia
Ventricular Tachycardia
Treatment
Ventricular Fibrillation
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Heart
Valvular Disease and Murmurs
Etiology
Acquired
Congenital
Epidemiology
Horses
Cattle
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Generation of Murmurs
Valve Lesions
Murmurs Without Valvular Disease
Functional Murmurs
Effects of Valvular Disease
Cardiac Reserve
Clinical Findings
Technique of Examination
Timing
Duration
Intensity
Location and Radiation
Character
Interpretation
Functional Innocent Murmurs
Insufficiency of the Right AV Valve
Insufficiency of the Left Atrioventricular Valve
Insufficiency of the Aortic Valve
Stenosis of the Aortic Valve
Stenosis and Insufficiency of the Pulmonary Valve
Stenosis of the Right or Left Atrioventricular Valves
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Endocarditis
Etiology
Cattle
Horses
Pigs and Sheep
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Valve Predilection
Clinical Findings
Cardiac Signs
Embolism
Clinical Course
Rupture of the Chordae Tendineae
Electrocardiography
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Myocardial Disease and Cardiomyopathy
Etiology
Bacterial Myocarditis
Viral Myocarditis
Parasitic Myocarditis
Nutritional Deficiency
Toxicity
Venoms
Embolic Infarction
Tumor or Infiltration
Inherited
Unknown or Uncertain Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Rupture of the Heart and Acute Cardiovascular Accidents
Rupture of the Aorta
Rupture of Heart Valves
References
Cor Pulmonale
References
High Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension Brisket Disease, Mountain Sickness
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Encephalomyocarditis Virus Disease in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation
Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Cardiac Toxicities
Cardiac Glycoside Toxicosis
Etiology
Acute Poisoning
Chronic Poisoning: Cotyledonosis or Krimpsiekte
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Plant Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Poisoning
Chronic Poisoning
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Primary Treatment
Supportive Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Yew Taxus spp. Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Monofluoroacetate Plant Toxicosis
References
4-Methoxypyridone Plant Toxicosis
Reference
Plants Causing Heart Failure Unidentified Toxins
Reference
Ionophore Carboxylic Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Swine Risk Factor Tiamulin
Farm Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Cattle
Sheep
Swine
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Cardiac Neoplasia
References
Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
Etiology
Epidemiology
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Shunts
Age at Manifestation
Clinical Findings
Ectopic Heart
Patent Foramen Ovale
Ventricular Septal Defects
Complications
Prognosis
Tetralogy of Fallot
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus
Coarctation of the Aorta
Double-Outlet Right Ventricle
Fibroelastosis
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis
Parachute Left Atrioventricular Valve
Valvular Abnormalities
Anomalous Origin of Coronary Arteries
Persistence of the Right Aortic Arch
Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery
Further Reading
References
Inherited Cardiovascular Defects
Bovine Hereditary Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Type 1 Calf: Acute Heart Failure
Type 2 Calf: Pulmonary Edema
Type 3: Young Adult Congestive Heart Failure
Reference
Inherited Ventricular Septal Defect
Inherited Aortic Aneurysm
Bovine Marfan Syndrome
Reference
Diseases of the Pericardium
Pericarditis
Etiology
Cattle
Horses
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Blood Vessels
Arterial Thrombosis, Embolism, and Rupture
Etiology
Coagulopathies
Parasitic Arteritis
Viral Arteritis
Bacterial Arteritis
Embolic Arteritis and Thromboembolism
Microangiopathy
Calcification
Vasoconstrictive Agents
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Aortoiliac Thrombosis in the Horse
Aortoiliac Thrombosis in Calves
Pulmonary Embolism
Rupture of Abdominal Artery Aneurysm in Holstein-Friesian Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Purpura Hemorrhagica
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Venous Thrombosis
Thrombophlebitis
Clinical Signs
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Elaeophoriasis Filarial Dermatitis in Sheep
References
Vascular Neoplasia
Hemangioma and Hemangiosarcoma
Hemangioma
Hemangiosarcoma
Reference
11 Diseases of the Hemolymphatic and Immune Systems
Abnormalities of Plasma Protein Concentration
Hypoproteinemia
Etiology
Panhyproteinemia
Hypoalbuminemia
Hypogammaglobulinemia
Hypofibrinogenemia
Pathophysiology
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Treatment
Hyperproteinemia
Etiology
Panhyperproteinemia
Hyperglobulinemia
Hyperfibrinogenemia
Pathophysiology
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Treatment
References
Hemorrhagic Disease
Diagnosis
Treatment of Coagulopathies
Diseases Causing Hemorrhage
Vasculitis
Septicemic and Viremic Diseases
Purpura Hemorrhagica
Necrotizing Vasculitis
Treatment
Coagulation Defects
Acquired Hemostatic Defects
Inherited or Congenital Defects in Hemostasis
Hemophilia A
Von Willebrand Disease Factor VIII : vWF Deficiency
Factor XI Deficiency
Other Clotting-Factor Disorders
Platelet Disorders
Thrombocytopenia
Decreased Production
Increased Destruction
Inflammation and Infection.
Immune-Mediated Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia.
Increased Consumption
Other Causes
Thrombasthenia
Thrombocytosis
References
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Hypercoagulable States
Etiology and Epidemiology
Prognosis
Pathophysiology
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Examination
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
References
Thrombosis Hypercoagulability
References
Diseases Characterized by Abnormalities of the Cellular Elements of the Blood
Disorders of Red Cell Number or Function
Anemia
Etiology
Hemorrhagic Anemia
Hemolytic Anemia
Cattle and Sheep
Pigs
Horses Table 11-1
Anemia Resulting From Decreased Production of Erythrocytes or Hemoglobin Nonregenerative Anemia
Nutritional Deficiency.
Chronic Disease.
Red Cell Aplasia
Myelophthisic Anemia.
Pathogenesis
Anemic Hypoxia
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolysis
Methemoglobinemia and Oxidative Damage
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Bone Marrow
Collection of Bone Marrow.
Interpretation of Bone Marrow.
Blood-Gas Analysis, Oximetry and Lactate
Arterial Blood-Gas Analysis.
Venous Blood-Gas Analysis.
Methemoglobinemia.
Lactate.
Serum Biochemistry
Other Evaluations
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Correction of Anemia
Transfusion.
Transfusion Triggers
Collection of Blood for Transfusion
Hematinics.
Supportive Care
Treatment of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Further Reading
References
Alloimmune Hemolytic Anemia of the Newborn Neonatal Isoerythrolysis, Isoimmune Hemolytic Anemia of the Newborn
Etiology
Epidemiology
Horses and Mules
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Horses and Mules
Pigs
Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Foals
Transfusion.
Nutritional Support.
Liver Failure and Kernicterus.
Antibiotics.
Piglets
Control
References
Erythrocytosis
References
Abnormal Red Cell Function
References
Disorders of White Cells
Leukopenia
References
Leukocytosis
Reference
Abnormal White Cell Function
Reference
Leukoproliferative Disease Leukemia, Lymphoma
Myeloproliferative Diseases
Further Reading
References
Lymphoproliferative Disease
Plasmacytoma Multiple Myeloma
Lymphoma and Lymphosarcoma
Ruminants and Pigs.
Horses
Etiology and Epidemiology.
Clinical Signs.
Clinical Pathology.
Treatment.
Further Reading
References
Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia BNP
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenitis
Reference
Diseases of the Spleen and Thymus
Splenomegaly
Splenic Abscess
Splenic Hematoma, Rupture or Infarction
References
Congenital Anomalies of the Spleen
References
Thymus
References
Immune-Deficiency Disorders Lowered Resistance to Infection
Primary Immune Deficiencies
Secondary Immune Deficiencies
References
Amyloidoses
Etiology and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Zoonotic Potential
References
Allergy and Anaphylaxis
Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV
Treatment
Anaphylaxis and Anaphylactic Shock
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep, Goats, and Pigs
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Other Hypersensitivity Reactions
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Caseous Lymphadenitis of Sheep and Goats
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Sheep
Goats
Source of Infection
Transmission
Risk Factors
Sheep
Age and Sex
Breed
Shearing
Dust
Housing
Dips
Goats
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Culling
Control of Spread
Vaccination
Prevention
Eradication
Further Reading
References
Bovine Farcy
Further Reading
References
Sporadic Lymphangitis Bigleg, Weed
Tick-Borne Fever Anaplasma phagocytophila
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Anaplasmosis Due to A. Marginale and A. Ovis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source and Methods of Transmission
Hematophagous Insect Transmission
Iatrogenic Transmission
Transplacental Transmission
Animal and Environmental Risk Factors
Breed
Nutritional Status
Season
Age at Infection
Geographic Region
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Experimental Reproduction
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Serology
Molecular Methods
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
General Measures
Movement of Animals
Elimination of Carriers
Outbreaks
Chemotherapy
Vaccination
Killed Vaccines
Live Vaccines
Problems With Live Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Equine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Equine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Etiology
Epidemiology
Distribution
Anaplasma and Ixodes Ecology
Animal Risk Factors
Transmission
Morbidity and Mortality
Zoonotic Potential
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Examination
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Eperythrozoonosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source and Transmission
Sheep
Pigs
Host and Pathogen Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Pigs
Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Blood Smears and Hematology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Serology
Sheep
Pigs
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Bovine Petechial Fever Ondiri Disease
Further Reading
Mycoplasma suis Infection in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Pathology
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Blacktongue
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Culicoides Species
Other Vectors
Other Methods of Transmission
Host Risk Factors
Wild Ruminants
Cattle
Small Ruminants
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Wild Ruminants
Cattle
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Deer
Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Virus Isolation
Detection of Antigen or Nucleic Acid
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Deer
Cattle
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Reduction of Infection Through Vector Abatement
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Bovine Immunodeficiency-Like Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Virus.
Serologic Tests.
Necropsy Findings
Further Reading
Enzootic Bovine Leukosis Bovine Lymphosarcoma
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Occurrence of Clinical Disease
Methods of Transmission
Direct Contact
Semen, Artificial Insemination, and Embryo Technology
Iatrogenic Transmission
Rectal Palpation
Insects
Congenital Infection
Interspecies Transmission
Source of Infection
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Genetic Resistance and Susceptibility.
Susceptibility to Other Diseases.
Immune Mechanisms
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Lack of Biosecurity
Calf Management
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Trade Restrictions
Zoonotic Implications
Other Species
Pathogenesis
Virus and Lesion
Lesions and Clinical Disease
Clinical Findings
Enlargement of the Superficial Lymph Nodes
Digestive Tract Lesions
Cardiac Lesions
Nervous System Involvement
Less Common Lesions
Other Species
Clinical Pathology
Diagnosis of the Presence of Infection With BLV
Serologic Tests
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay in Serum or Milk.
Agar Gel Immunodiffusion Test.
Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay.
Radioimmunoassay.
Detection of Virus
Polymerase Chain Reaction.
Differentiation Between Enzootic and Sporadic Bovine Leukosis.
Diagnosis of Persistent Lymphocytosis
Diagnosis of Lymphosarcoma
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
History of Compulsory Eradication Programs in Europe
Eradication Programs
Limitation of Spread of Infection
Prevention of Infection in Calves and Young Stock
Biosecurity
Vaccine
References
Equine Infectious Anemia Swamp Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Methods of Transmission
Insect Vectors
Other Means of Transmission
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Viral Multiplication
Immune Reaction
Anemia and Thrombocytopenia
Persistence of Infection
Summary of Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Ticks That Transmit Protozoan Diseases
Babesiosis Texas Fever, Redwater Fever, Cattle Tick Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Bovine Babesiosis
Sheep and Goats
Porcine Babesiosis
Equine Piroplasmosis
Wildlife Babesiosis
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Life Cycle and Development of Babesia
Immunity and Susceptibility to Infection
Innate Immune Mechanisms
Acquired Immune Mechanisms
Immunity.
Risk Factors
Host Factors
Age Resistance.
Environmental Factors
Pathogen Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Acute Cases
Immunology
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Babesia Bovis.
Babesia Bigemina.
Sheep
Wildlife
Other Species
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Demonstration of the Presence of Babesia
Direct Examination of Blood Smears
Transmission Test
Culture of Babesia
Methods of Detection and Identification of Babesia spp.
Serology
Cattle
Complement Fixation Test.
Immunofluorescence Antibody Test.
ELISA.
Sheep
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Cattle
Imidocarb Imizol
Sheep
Supportive Treatment
Control Bovine Babesiosis
Prevention and Biosecurity
Control
Limitation of Prevalence
Vaccination
Live Vaccines
Origin and Purification of Strains.
Attenuation of Parasites
Babesia Bovis.
Babesia Bigemina.
Vaccine Specifications
Frozen Vaccine.
Chilled Vaccine.
Use of Live Vaccine
Cattle Born in Tick-Infested Regions.
Susceptible Cattle Imported Into Vector-Infested Country or Region.
Control of Outbreaks.
Hazards and Precautions of Live Vaccine Use
Severe Reactions.
Lack of Protection.
Vaccination With Subunit Vaccines
Dead Vaccines
Vector Control
Natural Endemic Stability
Control of Babesiosis in Species Other Than Cattle
Further Reading
References
Equine Piroplasmosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Impact
Life Cycle and Transmission
Movement of Horses
Pathogenesis
Immunology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Microscopic Examination
Serologic and DNA-Based Methods
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Chemotherapy
Supportive Treatment
Control
References
Nutritional Deficiencies
Iron Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Dietary Supplementation
Sows
Veal Calves
Heifer Calf Herd Replacements
Oral Dosing
Intramuscular Injection of Iron Preparations
References
Cobalt Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Dietary and Environmental Factors
Ovine White Liver Disease
Hepatic Lipidosis in Goats
Experimental Reproduction of Cobalt Deficiency in Sheep
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Biochemical Criteria to Determine Cobalt and Vitamin B12 Status
Serum and Liver Cobalt and Vitamin B12 Concentrations
Concurrent Serum MMA and Vitamin B12 Concentrations.
Liver Cobalt.
Serum Methylmalonic Acid
Formiminoglutamic Acid
Hematology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Cobalt and Vitamin B12
Cobalt Toxicity
Control
Supplementation of Diet With Cobalt
Top Dressing of Pastures With Cobalt
Cobalt Pellet
Cobalt in Anthelmintics
Vitamin B12 Injections
Further Reading
References
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Hypocyanocobalaminosis
References
Vitamin K Deficiency
References
Folic Acid Deficiency Hypofolicosis
Reference
Toxins Affecting the Hemolymphatic System
Secondary Copper Poisoning “Toxemic Jaundice? Complex
Phytogenous Chronic Copper Poisoning
Hepatogenous Chronic Copper Poisoning
Poisoning by Heliotropium europaeum
Further Reading
Anticoagulant Dicoumarol, Sweet Clover Poisoning Plant Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Plant Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Primary
Supportive Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Primary Treatment
Further Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Cyanogenic Glycoside Poisoning Cyanide, Hydrocyanic Acid, Prussic Acid
Etiology
Toxic Variability
Differences Between Plant Species
Plant Products
Storage
Glycosides
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Plant Risk Factors
Cyanogenic Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Peracute or Acute Intoxication
Chronic Poisoning
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Field Tests
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Investigational Treatments
Control
Further Reading
References
Nitrate and Nitrite Toxicosis
Etiology
Cattle
Sheep
Swine
Horses
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Species Differences
Dietary Differences
Differences in Susceptibility
Environmental Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Toxic Levels
Ration Dilution
Further Reading
References
Disulfide Plant Toxicosis Allium spp.[onions] and Brassica spp.
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Red Maple Leaf Acer rubrum Toxicosis
References
Neoplasia
Sporadic Bovine Leukosis Atypical Bovine Leukosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Juvenile or Calf Lymphosarcoma
Thymic Lymphosarcoma
Cutaneous Lymphoma
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
References
Congenital Inherited Diseases
Inherited Bleeding Disorders
Hemophilia
Bovine Factor XI Deficiency
Prekallikrein Deficiency
Inherited Thrombopathia
Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia in Horses
Afibrinogenemia Related Diseases Are Hypofibrinogenemia and Dysfibrinogenemia
References
Familial Polycythemia
Reference
Hemochromatosis
Inherited Anemias
Inherited Dyserythropoiesis and Dyskeratosis Bovine Congenital Anemia, Dyskeratosis, and Progressive Alopecia
Inherited Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Deficiency
Reference
Porphyrias
References
Inherited Congenital Porphyria
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Inherited Erythrocytic Photoporphyria
References
Inherited Immunodeficiency
Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
Chediak?Higashi Syndrome
References
Inherited Deficiency of Lymphocyte Maturation Lethal Trait A46, Parakeratosis, Adema Disease
Fell Pony and Dale Pony Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Inherited Deficiency of Immunoglobulin Synthesis
Inherited Combined Immunodeficiency in Foals of Arabian Breeding
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Diseases of Unknown Etiology
Postparturient Hemoglobinuria in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Multisystemic, Eosinophilic, Epitheliotropic Disease of Horses
Further Reading
References
12 Diseases of the Respiratory System
Principles of Respiratory Insufficiency
Definitions
Hypoxia
Hypoxic or Hypoxemic Hypoxia
Anemic Hypoxia
Circulatory Hypoxia
Histotoxic Anoxia
Consequences of Hypoxia
Compensatory Mechanisms
Carbon Dioxide Retention Hypercapnia
Respiratory Failure
Principal Manifestations of Respiratory Insufficiency
Abnormalities in Rate, Depth, and Ease of Breathing
Diseases Causing Dyspnea at Rest or Lack of Exercise Tolerance
Respiratory Tract Disease
Cardiovascular Disease
Diseases of the Blood
Nervous System Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
General Systemic States
Environmental Causes
Miscellaneous Poisons
Abnormal Posture
Normal and Abnormal Breath Sounds
Generation of Breath Sounds
Rebreathing “Bagging? Examination
Interpretation of Breath Sounds
Normal Breath Sounds
Abnormal Breath Sounds
Respiratory Noises
Coughing
Cyanosis
Nasal Discharge
Origin
Examination
Nasal Discharge and Location of Lesion
Sampling of Nasal Discharge
Epistaxis and Hemoptysis
Thoracic Pain
Special Examination of the Respiratory System
Auscultation and Percussion
Endoscopic Examination of the Airways Rhinolaryngoscopy, Tracheobronchoscopy
Horses
Cattle
Endoscopy of Paranasal Sinuses
Pleuroscopy
Radiography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Computed Tomography
Scintigraphy Nuclear Imaging
Ultrasonography
Laboratory Evaluation of Respiratory Secretions
Sampling Respiratory Secretions
Nasal Swab
Nasopharyngeal Swabs
Nasal Lavage
Paranasal Sinus Fluid
Guttural Pouch Fluid
Tracheobronchial Secretions
Comparison of Tracheal Aspirates and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Tracheal Aspirates
Percutaneous Transtracheal Aspiration
Endoscopic Sampling of Tracheal Secretions
Assessment of Results
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Endoscopic Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Blind Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Laboratory Assessment of Tracheobronchial Secretions
Diagnostic Value
Thoracocentesis Pleurocentesis
Pulmonary Function Tests
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis
Normal Values
Collection of Arterial Blood Gas Samples
Venous Blood Gas Analysis
Pulse Oximetry
Blood Lactate Concentration
Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath Condensate
Lung Biopsy
Respiratory Sound Spectrum Analysis
Exercise Testing
Principles of Treatment and Control of Respiratory Tract Disease
Treatment of Respiratory Disease
Respiratory Gas Transport
Oxygen Therapy
Respiratory Stimulants
Mechanical Ventilation
Anti-Inflammatory Therapy
Immunomodulators
Antimicrobial Therapy
Bronchodilator Drugs
Mucolytics, Mucokinetic, and Antitussive Drugs
Surfactant
Surgery
General Nursing Care
Control of Respiratory Disease
Importance of Diagnosis
Management Techniques
Housing Facilities
Vaccines
Environmental Control
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract
Rhinitis
Etiology
Cattle
Horses
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
“Summer Snuffles?
Familial Allergic Rhinitis
Mycotic Rhinitis
Endoscopic Examination
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Nasal Discharge
Neoplasms
Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma
Progressive Ethmoidal Hematomas in Equids
Clinical Findings
Treatment
References
Epistaxis and Hemoptysis
Etiology
Clinical Examination
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Pharyngitis
References
Laryngitis, Tracheitis, Bronchitis
Etiology
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Traumatic Laryngotracheitis, Tracheal Compression, and Tracheal Collapse
References
Diseases of the Lung Parenchyma
Pulmonary Congestion and Edema
Etiology
Primary Pulmonary Congestion
Secondary Pulmonary Congestion
Pulmonary Edema
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Special Diseases
References
Pulmonary Hypertension
Causes
References
Atelectasis
References
Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Cattle
References
Pulmonary Emphysema
Etiology
Cattle
Horses
All Species
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Pneumonia
Etiology
Cattle
Pigs
Horses
Sheep
Goats
All Species
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Pulmonary Defense Mechanisms
Respiratory Mucociliary Clearance
Large Particles in Upper Respiratory Tract
Cough Reflex
Small Particles Into Lower Respiratory Tract
Species Susceptibility
Development of Pneumonia
Clinical Findings
Medical Imaging
Clinical Pathology
Respiratory Secretions
Thoracocentesis
Hematology
Serology
Fecal Samples
Necropsy
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Mass Medication
Other Drugs
Supportive Therapy and Housing
References
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Further Reading
References
Aspiration Pneumonia
References
Lipid Pneumonia
Esophageal Obstruction
References
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Reference
Dusty Feed
Drowning
Reference
Pulmonary Abscess
Etiology
Primary Diseases
Secondary Diseases
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Pleural Cavity and Diaphragm
Hydrothorax and Hemothorax
Etiology
Hydrothorax
Hemothorax
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Pleuritis Pleurisy
Etiology
Pigs
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Horses
Other Causes
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pleural Pain
Pleuritic Friction Sounds
Subcutaneous Edema
Pleural Effusion
Recovery
Medical Imaging
Ultrasonography
Pleuroscopy
Prognosis
Clinical Pathology
Thoracocentesis Pleurocentesis
Hematology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Drainage and Lavage of Pleural Cavity
Fibrinolytic Therapy
References
Pneumothorax
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Diaphragmatic Hernia
Clinical Findings
References
Diseases of the Bovine Respiratory Tract
Enzootic Nasal Granuloma of Cattle Bovine Atopic Rhinitis
References
Tracheal Stenosis of Feedlot Cattle
Caudal Vena Caval Thrombosis Posterior Vena Caval Thrombosis and Embolic Pneumonia in Cattle
References
Cranial Vena Caval Thrombosis
Reference
Acute Undifferentiated Bovine Respiratory Disease
Definition of the Problem
Etiology
Role of Etiologic Agents
Clinical Case Definition and Epidemiology
Clinical Case Definition
What Is the Clinical Disease That Is Present in the Affected Animals?
Which Animals Are Affected?
Where Are the Affected Animals?
When Were the Animals Affected?
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Individual Animal Diagnosis
Herd-Level Diagnosis
Clinical Pathology
Antemortem Diagnostic Procedures
Nasal/Nasopharyngeal Swabs
Transtracheal Wash/ Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Serology
Serum Biochemistry and Hematology
Other Procedures
Postmortem Samples
Bacterial Culture and Antimicrobial Sensitivity
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Interpretation of Results of Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Mass Medication or Metaphylaxic Antimicrobial Use
Management of Risk Factors
Vaccines
Selection of Vaccines
Efficacy of Vaccines
Pasteurella Vaccines
Histophilus somni Formerly Haemophilus somnus Vaccine
Viral Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Pneumonic Pasteurellosis of Cattle Shipping Fever Pneumonia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Mortality
Economic Importance
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Method of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Colonization of Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract
Virulence Factors and Cellular and Humoral Reactions
Experimental Pneumonic Pasteurellosis
Synergism Between Pathogens
Clinical Findings
Feedlot
Early Identification of Affected Animals in Feedlots
Close Physical Examination
Clinical Pathology
Bacterial Culture
Serum Biochemistry and Hematology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Choice of Antimicrobial
Antimicrobial Sensitivity
Medication of Feed and Water Supplies
Antiinflammatory Agents
Failure to Respond
Control
Management Strategies
Preconditioning Programs
Weaning Procedures
Creep Feeding
Conditioning Programs
Feeding Newly Arrived Cattle
Vaccines
General Comments
Pasteurella Vaccines
Leukotoxin Extract Vaccine
Passive Immunity to Mannheimia haemolytica
Evaluation of Efficacy of Mannheimia haemolytica Vaccines
Adverse Vaccine Reactions
Histophilus somni Vaccines
Viral Vaccines
Antimicrobial Metaphylaxis
Mass Medication of Feed and Water Supplies
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Respiratory Tract Associated With Mycoplasma spp.
Sheep
Goats
Cattle
Horses
References
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia Lung Sickness, CBPP
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Source of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Form
Chronic and Subacute Forms
Clinical Pathology
Culture and Nucleic Acid Recognition
Immunologic Tests
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Removal of Sources of Infection
Clinical Surveillance
Pathologic Surveillance
Serologic Surveillance
Vaccination
Antimicrobial Use
Disease Control on an Area Basis
World Organization for Animal Health OIE?CBPP Status for Countries or Regions
Further Reading
References
Mycoplasma bovis Pneumonia, Polyarthritis, Mastitis, and Related Diseases of Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Economic Importance
Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Methods of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Chronic Pneumonia and Polyarthritis Syndrome
Arthritis
Otitis Media/Interna
Clinical Pathology
Culture
DNA Probe and Polymerase Chain Reaction
Immunohistochemistry
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Serology
Sample Collection and Handling
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Biosecurity
Metaphylactic Use of Antimicrobials
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Enzootic Pneumonia of Calves
Etiology
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Bovine Coronavirus
Parainfluenza-3 Paramyxovirus
Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma spp.
Mixed Viral and Other Pathogen Infections
Bacteria
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Dairy Calves
Beef Calves
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Bovine Coronavirus
Parainfluenza-3 Virus
Mixed Flora
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Viruses
Parainfluenza-3
Mycoplasma
Bacteria
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Isolation of Pathogens
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Adjunctive Therapy
Correction of Adverse Environmental Conditions
Control
Environmental and Management Practices
Ideal Environmental Conditions
Calf Barns or Hutches
Vaccines and Immunization
Further Reading
References
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Occurrence of Clinical Disease
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogenesis
Experimental Reproduction of BRSV Pneumonia
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Virus Isolation or Detection
Serology
Arterial Blood Gas Analysis and Blood L-Lactate Concentration
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Corticosteroids and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents
Control
Vaccines and Immunization
Further Reading
References
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Red Nose, Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection and Occurrence of Disease
Wildlife
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Age and Breed Susceptibility
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Colostral Immunity
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Respiratory Disease
Encephalitis
Abortion
Latency
Predisposition to Pneumonia
Reproductive Failure
Bovine Mastitis
Clinical Findings
Rhinitis Red Nose, Tracheitis, and Conjunctivitis
Ocular Form of IBR
Systemic Disease in Newborn Calves
Abortion
Clinical Pathology
Virus Isolation or Detection
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Control
Natural Exposure or Vaccination
Natural Exposure
Biosecurity
Closed Herd
Vaccination
Rationale for Vaccination
Temperature-Sensitive BHV-1 Modified Live Vaccine.
Disadvantages of Modified Live Vaccines.
Shedding of Virus by Vaccinated Animals.
Inactivated Vaccines.
Subunit Vaccines.
Combination or Multivalent Vaccines.
Immunization and Latency.
Vaccination Programs in Herds
Beef Breeding Herds.
Feedlot Cattle.
Dairy Cattle.
Eradication
Eradication Using Marker Vaccines.
Loss of Certification.
Further Reading
References
Lungworm in Cattle
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia of Cattle Acute Bovine Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Acute Pulmonary Emphysema, and Edema
Etiology
Ingestion of Excessive Amounts of d,l-Tryptophan With the Forage
Hypersensitivity to Molds
Inhalation of Toxic Gases and Fumes
Parasitic Infestation
Mycotoxicosis and Plant Poisonings
Melengestrol Acetate
Bacterial and Mycoplasma spp. Infections
Viral Infections
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Grazing Management
Inhibition of 3-Methylindole Production in Rumen
Other Forms of AIP
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Ovine and Caprine Respiratory Tract
Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma of Sheep and Goats Enzootic Nasal Tumor
References
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission
Agent
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Chronic Enzootic Pneumonia of Sheep Chronic Nonprogressive Atypical Pneumonia, Summer Pneumonia, Proliferative Exudative Pneumonia
Etiology
M. ovipneumoniae
B. parapertussis
Parainfluenza-3 PI-3 Virus
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Other Agents
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Environmental Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Maedi, Maedi-Visna
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Host Range
Prevalence
Transmission
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Antigen
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Test and Cull
Segregated Rearing
Flock Biosecurity and Other Control Methods
Vaccination and Genetic Selection
Further Reading
References
Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Jaagsiekte, Pulmonary Adenomatosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal and Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Nasal Bots Infestation
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Recommendation
References
Lungworm Infestation in Sheep and Goats
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
References
Diseases of the Equine Respiratory Tract
Abnormalities of the Upper Respiratory Tract of Horses
Further Reading
References
Palatal Dysfunction Instability, Dorsal Displacement of the Soft Palate
Palatal Instability and Intermittent Dorsal Displacement of the Soft Palate During Exercise
Clinical Signs
Treatment
Persistent Dorsal Displacement of the Soft Palate
Clinical Signs
Treatment
References
Diseases of the Guttural Pouches Auditory Tube Diverticulum, Eustachian Tube Diverticulum
Guttural Pouch Empyema
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
References
Guttural Pouch Mycosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Guttural Pouch Tympany
Etiology and Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Treatment
References
Other Guttural Pouch Diseases
Reference
Diseases of the Epiglottis and Arytenoids
Aryepiglottic Fold Entrapment Epiglottic Entrapment
Clinical Signs
Treatment
Epiglottic Retroversion During Exercise
Epiglottitis
Subepiglottic Cysts
Arytenoid Chondritis
Treatment
Mucosal Lesions of the Arytenoid Cartilages
Axial Deviation of the Aryepiglottic Folds
Retropharyngeal Lymphadenopathy
Clinical Signs
Treatment
References
Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy Roarers
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
References
Equine Pleuropneumonia Pleuritis, Pleurisy
Etiology
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs of Acute Disease
Clinical Signs in Chronic Disease
Complications
Prognosis
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Antimicrobial Treatment
Thoracic Drainage
Pleural Lavage
Fibrinolytic Therapy
Supportive Therapy
Control
References
Acute Broncho-Interstitial Pneumonia in Foals
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Chronic Interstitial Pneumonia in Foals
Further Reading
Reference
Interstitial Pneumonia in Adult Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage of Horses Bleeders
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Performance
Physical Examination
Tracheobronchoscopy
Radiography
Prognosis
Clinical Pathology
Examination of Airway Secretions or Lavage Fluid
Necropsy
Treatment
Prevention of Stress Failure of the Pulmonary Capillaries
Reducing Pulmonary Capillary Pressure
Increasing Alveolar Inspiratory Pressure
Interstitial Inflammation and Bronchial Angiogenesis
Excessive Bleeding
Coagulopathy and Fibrinolysis
Platelet Function
Capillary Integrity
Summary of Treatment Options
Prevention and Control
Further Reading
References
Recurrent Airway Obstruction Heaves
Etiology
Genetics
Environmental Factors
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Season
Housing and Hay Feeding
Pathogenesis
Inflammatory and Immune Responses
Mucus
Airway Function and Gas Exchange
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Special Examinations
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Antiinflammatory Drugs
Bronchodilator Drugs
Other Drugs
Integrated Therapy
Control
Further Reading
References
Pasture-Associated Heaves Pasture-Associated Recurrent Airway Obstruction of Horses
Further Reading
References
Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter in Horses Thumps
Reference
Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia of Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
R. equi pneumonia
Extrapulmonary manifestations of R. equi infection
Prognosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Streptococcus zooepidemicus Infection
Further Reading
References
Strangles
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Disease
Complications
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Prevention of Transmission
Enhanced Resistance
Further Reading
References
Glanders
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Host and Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Disease
Chronic Disease
Pulmonary Form of Disease
Nasal Form of Disease
Skin Form of Disease “Farcy?
Clinical Pathology
Mallein Test
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Viral Infections of the Respiratory Tract of Horses
Parainfluenza-3 Virus
Equine Adenovirus Infection
Reovirus
References
Equine Influenza
Etiology
Viral Evolution
Persistence in the Environment
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Management Factors
Meteorologic Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Potential
Australian Outbreak 2007
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Serology
Rapid Detection of Virus
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Immunity and Vaccination
Vaccines
Objective
Timing
Foals
Racehorses and Show Horses
Schedule
Control Measures
Further Reading
References
Equine Rhinitis Equine Rhinitis Virus
References
Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis Equine Herpesvirus-1 and -4 Infections
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Risk Factors
Immunity
Age
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Control
Vaccination
Hygiene
References
Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Specimen for Laboratory Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Hendra Virus Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Zoonotic Potential
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Treatment and Control
References
Pulmonary and Systemic Aspergillosis Aspergillus spp.
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
References
Rhinosporidosis
References
Lungworm in Horses
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Reference
Diseases of the Swine Respiratory Tract
Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis Conchal Atrophy of Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Method of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogen Factors
Environmental Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture and Detection of Bacteria
Serology
Antigen Detection
Radiography
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Eradication
Reduction of Infection
Mass Medication
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Facial Necrosis Facial Pyemia
Further Reading
Bordetella Rhinitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Immunity
Treatment
Control
References
Pleuropneumonia of Pigs Associated With Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Biotypes
Serotypes
Virulence Factors
Apx Toxins
Animal Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Environmental and Management Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture of Organism
Serotype of Organism
Detection of Antigen
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Antimicrobial Sensitivities
Antimicrobials in Experimental Disease
Mass Medication of Feed
Control
Control by Management
Eradication
Vaccination
References
Mycoplasma Pneumonia Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Serologic Tests
Detection of Organism
Herd Certification
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Control by Eradication
Specific Pathogen-Free or Minimal-Disease Pigs
Isolated Farrowing
Minimal Disease Herds
Reinfection of Herds
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
Low-Level Disease
Medication of Breeding Stock
Source of Feeder Pigs
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex and Mycoplasmal Pneumonia of Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Combination and Interaction of Environmental Risk Factors
Economic Losses and Importance
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Treatment
Monitoring
Control
All-in, All-Out
Buildings
Production
Sick Pigs
Diagnosis
Active Control
References
Porcine Cytomegalic Virus Inclusion-Body Rhinitis, Generalized Cytomegalic Inclusion-Body Disease of Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Reference
Swine Influenza
Introduction
Etiology
H1N1?Classical
H1N1?Others
H1N1 Avian-Like
H1N1 Humanlike Viruses in Pigs
H1N1-Pandemic 2009
H1N2
H3N2?Classical
H3N2?Novel
Other Viruses
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Seasonality
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Methods of Transmission
Immunity
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Concurrent Infections
Clinical Pathology
Experimental Infections
Serologic Tests
Detection of Virus
Oral Fluids
Antigen Detection
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Inactivated Vaccines
Modified Live
Newer Options
Further Reading
References
Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus
Etiolgy
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Lesions
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Lungworm in Pigs
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Respiratory System Toxicoses
Furan Ipomeanol and 3-Methylindole Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Galegine Toxicoses
Reference
Manure Gas Poisoning and Confinement Effects
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Control
Further Reading
References
Plants Causing Pulmonary Disease Unidentified Toxins
Neoplastic Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
Pulmonary and Pleural Neoplasms
Clinical Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Congenital and Inherited Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
Congenital Defects
References
Index
Front Cover
Title Page Volume two
13 Diseases of the Urinary System
Introduction
Principles of Renal Insufficiency
Renal Insufficiency and Renal Failure
Causes of Renal Insufficiency and Uremia
Pathogenesis of Renal Insufficiency and Renal Failure
Clinical Features of Urinary Tract Disease
Abnormal Constituents of the Urine
Variations in Daily Urine Flow
Polyuria
Oliguria and Anuria
Pollakiuria
Abdominal Pain and Painful and Difficult Urination Dysuria and Stranguria
Morphologic Abnormalities of Kidneys and Ureters
Palpable Abnormalities of the Bladder and Urethra
Acute and Chronic Renal Failure
Uremia
Special Examination of the Urinary System
Tests of Renal Function and Detection of Renal Injury
Collection of Urine Samples
Tests of Urine Samples
Specific Gravity
pH
Net Acid Excretion
Hematuria
Hemoglobinuria
Myoglobinuria
Ketonuria
Glucosuria
Proteinuria
Casts
Cells and Pyuria
Bacteriuria
Crystalluria
Enzymuria
Tests of Serum
Serum Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Concentration
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Tests of Urine and Serum
Urine Osmolality to Serum Osmolality Ratio
Water Deprivation Test
Renal Clearance Studies
Fractional Clearance
Summary of Renal Function Tests
Diagnostic Examination Techniques
Ultrasonography
Endoscopy
Renal Biopsy
Test of Uroperitoneum and Bladder Rupture
Radiography
Cystometry and Urethral Pressure Profile
Computed Tomography
Principles of Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease
Fluid and Electrolytes
Antimicrobial Agents
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
Reference
Pyelonephritis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Reference
Nephrosis
Ischemic Nephrosis
Etiology
Acute Renal Ischemia
Chronic Renal Ischemia
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Toxic Nephrosis
Etiology
Toxins
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Renal Tubular Acidosis
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis Type I
Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis Type II
Further Reading
References
Hemolytic Uremic?Like Syndrome
Hydronephrosis
Interstitial Nephritis
Embolic Nephritis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Infectious Diseases of the Kidney
Leptospirosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Serovars and Species Susceptibility
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Cattle
Farmed Deer
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Horses
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Methods of Transmission
Leptospiruria
Wildlife as Source of Infection
Portal of Entry of Organism
Pathogenesis
Acute Form
Septicemia, Capillary Damage, Hemolysis, and Interstitial Nephritis
Abortion
Encephalitis
Subacute and Occult Forms
Periodic Ophthalmia Recurrent Uveitis in the Horse
Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Immune Mechanisms
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Acute Leptospirosis Associated With pomona
Subacute Leptospirosis Associated With L. pomona
Chronic Leptospirosis Associated With L. pomona
Leptospirosis Associated With L. hardjo
Pigs
Sheep and Goats
Horses
Abortion
Periodic Ophthalmia
Neonatal Foal Disease
Clinical Pathology
General Considerations
Serologic and Related Tests
Aqueous Humor Antibody
Demonstration or Culture of Organism
Culture of Urine
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Blood Transfusions
Control
Biosecurity and Biocontainment
Eradication
Hygiene
Vaccination
Cattle
Bovine Leptospiral Vaccines and Their Efficacy
Swine
Vaccination and Antimicrobial Strategies
Further Reading
References
Bovine Pyelonephritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Urinary Disease in Swine
Glomerulonephritis
Nephrosis
Embolic Nephritis
Interstitial Nephritis
Other Conditions
Porcine Cystitis and Pyelonephritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for the Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Kidney Worm Disease in Pigs Caused by Stephanurus dentatus
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Toxic Agents Affecting the Kidney
Citrinin Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Ethylene Glycol Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Ochratoxins Ochratoxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Factors
Human Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Plant Poisonings Caused by Known Toxins
Iforrestine
Plant Poisonings From Unidentified Toxins
Uremia, Nephrosis?With High Blood Urea Nitrogen
Polydipsia, Polyuria
Red Urine Caused by A Pigmented Substance From the Plant
Cystitis
Fungi Lacking Identified Toxins
Further Reading
Renal Neoplasia
References
Congenital and Inherited Renal Diseases
Renal Hypoplasia
References
Polycystic Kidneys
Reference
Renal Dysplasia
References
Renal Lipofucinosis of Cattle
References
Equine Renal Cortical Tubular Ectasia
Reference
Diseases of the Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
Ectopic Ureter and Ureteral Defects
Paralysis of the Bladder and Overflow Incontinence
Reference
Eversion of the Bladder
Reference
Patent Urachus
Rupture of the Bladder Uroperitoneum
References
Uroperitoneum in Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Signs
Imaging
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Prevention and Control
Reference
Cystitis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Urolithiasis in Ruminants
Etiology
Epidemiology
Species Affected
Nidus Formation
Precipitation of Solutes
Factors Favoring Concretion
Miscellaneous Factors in the Development of Urolithiasis
Composition of Calculi
Risk Factors for Obstructive Urolithiasis
Occurrence
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Obstruction of the Urethra by a Calculus
Rupture of Urethra or Bladder
Clinical Pathology
Urinalysis
Serum Biochemistry
Abdominocentesis and Needle Aspirate of Subcutaneous Tissue
Ultrasonography
Radiography
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Urolithiasis in Horses
Further Reading
Reference
Urethral Tears in Stallions and Geldings
Urethral Defects
Further Reading
Reference
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
References
Bovine Enzootic Hematuria
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Primary
Supportive
Control
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Prepuce and Vulvovaginal Area
Enzootic Posthitis Pizzle Rot, Sheath Rot, Balanoposthitis and Vulvovaginitis Scabby Ulcer
Etiology
Epidemiology
Host Occurrence
Sheep
Cattle
Source of Infection and Transmission
Host and Environmental Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy and Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
14 Diseases of the Nervous System
Introduction
Posture and Gait
Sensory Perceptivity
Mental State
Principles of Nervous Dysfunction
Modes of Nervous Dysfunction
Excitation Irritation Signs
Release of Inhibition Signs
Paresis or Paralysis Caused by Tissue Damage
Nervous Shock
Clinical Manifestations of Diseases of the Nervous System
Altered Mentation
Excitation States
Mania
Frenzy
Aggressive Behavior
Depressive States
Depression Leading to Coma
Syncope
Narcolepsy Catalepsy
Compulsive Walking or Head Pressing
Aimless Wandering
Involuntary Movements
Tremor
Tics
Tetany
Convulsions
Involuntary Spastic Paresis
Abnormal Posture and Gait
Posture
Vestibular Disease
Gait
Ataxia
Cerebellar Disease
Spinal Cord Disease
Paresis and Paralysis
Neurogenic Muscular Atrophy
Altered Sensation
Blindness
Central or Peripheral Blindness
Abnormalities of the Autonomic Nervous System
Special Examination of the Nervous System
Neurologic Examination
Signalment and Epidemiology
History
Head
Behavior
Mental Status
Head Position and Coordination
Cranial Nerves
Olfactory Nerve Cranial Nerve I
Optic Nerve Cranial Nerve II
Oculomotor Nerve Cranial Nerve III
Trochlear Nerve Cranial Nerve IV
Trigeminal Nerve Cranial Nerve V
Abducent Nerve Cranial Nerve VI
Facial Nerve Cranial Nerve VII
Vestibulocochlear Nerve Cranial Nerve VIII
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Cranial Nerve IX and Vagus Nerve Cranial Nerve X
Spinal Accessory Nerve Cranial Nerve Xi
Hypoglossal Nerve Cranial Nerve XII
Posture and Gait
Neck and Forelimbs
Spinal Reflexes of the Thoracic Limbs
Trunk and Hindlimbs
Tail and Anus
Palpation of the Bony Encasement of the Central Nervous System
Collection and Examination of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Collection From the Lumbosacral Cistern
Collection From the Atlantooccipital Cistern Cisterna Magna
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid
Examination of the Nervous System With Serum Biochemical Analysis
Arterial Plasma Ammonia Concentration
Further Reading
References
Examination of the Nervous System With Imaging Techniques
Radiography
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Further Reading
References
Ultrasonography
Endoscopy Rhinolaryngoscopy
Ophthalmoscopy
Electromyography
Electroencephalography
Electroretinography
Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
Intracranial Pressure Measurement
Kinetic Gait Analysis
Further Reading
References
Diffuse or Multifocal Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Responses of Central Nervous System to Injury
Cerebral Hypoxia
Etiology
Cerebral Hypoxia Secondary to General Hypoxia
Cerebral Hypoxia Secondary to Intracranial Lesion
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Increased Intracranial Pressure, Cerebral Edema, and Brain Swelling
Etiology
Vasogenic Edema
Cytotoxic Edema
Interstitial Edema
Pathogenesis
Cerebral Edema and Brain Swelling
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Hydrocephalus
Etiology
Congenital Hydrocephalus
Acquired Hydrocephalus
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Meningitis
Etiology
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Hematology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Encephalitis
Etiology
All Species
Cattle
Sheep
Goats
New World Camelids
Horses
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hemogram
Serology
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Epilepsy
Treatment
Further Reading
Reference
Myelitis
Encephalomalacia
Etiology
All Species
Ruminants
Horses
Ruminants and Horses
Neurotoxic Mycotoxins
Pigs
Pathogenesis
Metabolic and Circulatory
Intoxications and Toxic-Infectious Diseases
Nutritional Diseases
Hereditary, Familial, and Idiopathic Degenerative Diseases
Polioencephalomalacia and Leukoencephalomalacia
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Myelomalacia
References
Focal Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord
Traumatic Injury to the Brain
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Concussion
Contusion
Laceration
Experimental Traumatic Craniocerebral Missile Injury
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Brain Abscess
Etiology
Hematogenous Spread
Local Spread
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Hematology
Imaging
Electroencephalography
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Tumors of the Central Nervous System
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Central Nervous System?Associated Tumors
Further Reading
Reference
Metastatic Tumors of the Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System?Associated Masses
References
Plant Toxins Affecting the Nervous System
Cannabinoids
Cynanchoside
Diterpenoid Kaurene Glycosides Atractyloside, Carboxyatractyloside, Parquin, Carboxyparquin, and Wedeloside
Stypandrol
Tropane Alkaloids
Tutin
Further Reading
References
Indole Alkaloids
β-Carboline Indoleamine Alkaloid Poisoning
Further Reading
References
Indolizidine Alkaloid Toxicosis Locoism, Peastruck
Castanospermine Poisoning
Swainsonine Poisoning
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Neurogenic Quinolizidine Alkaloids Lupinus Spp.
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Pathology
Further Reading
Nitrocompound Plant Toxicosis Milk Vetch
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Poisoning
Chronic Poisoning
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Piperidine Alkaloid Plant Toxicosis
Etiology
Conium
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cynapine
Nicotiana
Lobeline
Further Reading
References
Corynetoxins Tunicaminyluracils Annual Ryegrass Staggers, Flood Plain Staggers, Stewart Range Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Plant Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Miscellaneous Plant Toxins Affecting the Nervous System Unidentified Toxins
Further Reading
References
Fungal Toxins Affecting the Nervous System
Further Reading
Reference
Tremorgenic Mycotoxins
Aspergillus-Associated Mycotoxins
Bermudagrass Staggers
Claviceps-Associated Mycotoxins Paspalum or Dallis Grass Staggers
Neotyphodium-Associated Mycotoxins Perennial Ryegrass Staggers
Penicillium-Associated Mycotoxins
Further Reading
References
Miscellaneous Fungal Toxins Affecting the Nervous System Unidentified Toxins
Black Soil Blindness
Nervous Signs
Further Reading
Other Toxins Affecting the Nervous System
Inorganic Toxins Affecting the Nervous System
Lead Toxicosis Plumbism
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Cattle
Buffalo
Sheep
Horses
Environmental Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Human and Public Health Risk Factors
Transmission Sources of Lead
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Blood Lead
Milk Lead
Fecal Lead
Urinary Lead
δ-ALA-D
Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin
Plasma δ-Aminolevulinic Acid
Necropsy Findings
Liver and Kidney Lead
Cattle
Horses
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Calcium Versenate
Succimer Dimercaptosuccinic Acid
Thiamine Hydrochloride
Magnesium Sulfate
Rumenotomy
Control
Further Reading
References
Mercury Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Boron Toxicosis
Further Reading
Bromide Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Organic Toxins Affecting the Nervous System
Anthelmintic Toxicosis
Commonly Used Anthelmintics
Older Anthelmintics
Currently Used Anthelmintics
Amino-Acetonitrile Derivatives Monepantel
Benzimidazoles Albendazole, Fenbendazole, and Thiabendazole and Probenzimidazoles Febantel, Netobimin, etc.
Albendazole, Cambendazole, and Parbendazole
Fenbendazole
Thiabendazole
Cyclic Octadepsipeptides Emodepside
Imidazothiazoles Levamisole
Macrocyclic Lactones Ivermectin, Moxidectin, and Doramectin
Miscellaneous Piperazine and Clorsulon
Piperazine
Clorsulon
Praziquantel/Epsiprantel
Salicylanilides/Substituted Phenols Closantel, Rafoxanide, and Oxyclozanide
Tetrahydropyrimidines Pyrantel and Morantel
Older Anthelmintics
Carbon Tetrachloride
Hexachloroethane
Hexachlorophene
Nicotine
Phenothiazine
Sumicidin
Tetrachlorethylene
Further Reading
References
Macrocyclic Lactone Ivermectin, Moxidectin, etc. Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Organophosphorus Compounds and Carbamate Insecticides
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Toxin
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Cholinesterase Inactivation
Organophosphorus-Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity
Clinical Findings
Acute Poisoning
Cattle, Sheep, and Goats
Acute Toxicosis
Delayed Neurotoxicity
Pigs
Acute Toxicosis
Delayed Neurotoxicity
Horses
Acute Toxicosis
Delayed Neurotoxicity Syndrome
Miscellaneous Signs of Organophosphorus Poisoning
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Industrial Organophosphates
Rotenone Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Organochlorine Insecticides
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Farm or Premise Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Transmission
Method of Application
Formulation Used
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Sodium Fluoroacetate Compound 1080 Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology/ Necropsy Findings
Treatment/Control
Further Reading
References
Molluscicide Toxicosis
Metaldehyde
Methiocarb
Further Reading
References
Strychnine
Further Reading
Diseases of the Cerebrum
Psychoses, Neuroses, and Stereotypy
Crib-Biting and Windsucking
Weaving
Box Walking
Farrowing Hysteria in Sows
Tail-Biting, Ear-Chewing, and Snout-Rubbing in Pigs
Head-Shaking in Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Tail-Biting in Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Factors Increasing Biting
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Bacterial Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Enterotoxemia Associated With Clostridium Perfringens Type D Pulpy Kidney, Overeating Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Experimental Reproduction
Animal and Management Risk Factors
Sheep
Calves
Goats
Horses
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Lambs
Adult Sheep
Calves
Goats
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Reduction in Food Intake
Antitoxin
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Focal Symmetric Encephalomalacia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Cerebrospinal Angiopathy
Further Reading
Viral Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Rabies
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Europe
United States
Canada
Africa
South America, Latin America, and the Caribbean
Distribution of Virus Variants
Methods of Transmission
Animal Vectors
Seasonal Spread
Latent Infection
Zoonotic Implications
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Prevention of Exposure to the Virus
Preexposure Vaccination of Humans
Postexposure Vaccination of Humans
Postexposure Vaccination of Domestic Animals
Vaccination of Domestic Animals
Vaccines
Vaccination of Wildlife
Quarantine and Biosecurity
Further Reading
References
Pseudorabies Aujeszky’s Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Methods of Transmission
Within Herds
Between Herds
Within an Area
Latency
Other Species
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pigs
Cattle, Sheep, and Goats
Clinical Pathology
Serology
Serum Neutralization Test
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Detection of Virus
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Strategies Available
Economics of Control and Eradication
Determination of Prevalence of Infection
Depopulation and Repopulation
Test and Removal
Offspring Segregation
Control Programs in Effect
Vaccines and Vaccination
Vaccines
Pregnant Sows
Growing and Finishing Pigs
Marker or Subunit Vaccines
References
Sporadic Bovine Encephalomyelitis Buss Disease and Transmissible Serositis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case?Fatality Rates
Method of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Detection of Agent
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Border Disease Hairy Shaker Disease of Lambs, Hairy Shakers, Hypomyelinogenesis Congenita
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Transmission
Host Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Nonpregnant Sheep
Pregnant Sheep
Infection in Early Pregnancy
In Midpregnancy
Infection in Late Pregnancy
Goats
Enteric Disease
Clinical Findings
Conformation
Fleece
Neurologic Dysfunction
Growth Rate
Reproductive Performance
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Persistently Infected Sheep
Abortion
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Visna
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Experimental Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Risk Factors
Breeds
Age
Method of Transmission
Colostrum and Milk
Other Perinatal Transmission
Contact Transmission
Other Routes
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Joints
Brain
Udder
Clinical Pathology
Serologic Testing
Other Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Prevention of Perinatal Transmission
Test and Segregate/Cull
Vaccination and Genetic Selection
Further Reading
References
Ovine Encephalomyelitis Louping-Ill
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Transmission
Tick Transmission
Nontick Transmission
Host and Environmental Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
West Nile, Kunjin, and Murray Valley Encephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Distribution
Viral Ecology
Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Other Species
Clinical Pathology
Serologic Tests
Identification of West Nile Virus
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Japanese Encephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Zoonosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Distribution
Viral Ecology
Western Equine Encephalomyelitis
Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis
Animal Risk Factors
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pigs
Ratites and Pheasants
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Protection From Insects
Zoonotic Aspects of Control
Further Reading
References
Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Distribution
Viral Ecology
Animal Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Protection From Insects
References
Equid Herpesvirus-1 Myeloencephalopathy, Abortion, and Neonatal Septicemia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Cycling of Infection
Risk Factors
Immunity
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Myeloencephalopathy
Abortion
Neonatal Viremia and Septicemia
Respiratory Disease
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Prevention of Infection
Vaccination
Subdivision of Horses on a Farm
Minimize Risk of Introduction of Infection
Prevention of Reactivation of Latent Infection
Control of Outbreaks
Control of Outbreaks of Myeloencephalopathy
Abortion
Rapid Diagnosis
Prevention of Spread
Further Reading
References
Peruvian Horse Sickness Virus
References
Powassan Virus
Reference
Nigerian Equine Encephalitis
Main Drain Virus Encephalitis
Reference
Borna Disease
Further Reading
References
Teschovirus Infections
Serotypes
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Viral Encephalomyelitis Teschen Disease
Subacute Viral Encephalomyelitis Talfan Disease
Clinical Pathology
Serology
Detection of Virus
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Immunity
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Prion Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Introduction
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Mad Cow Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Occurrence
Occurrence in Cattle
Great Britain
Herd Type
Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland
European Continent and Iberian Peninsula
North America
Japan
Age Incidence
Other Species
Method of Natural Transmission
Ingestion of Meat-and-Bone Meal
Born-After-the-Ban
Non?Feed-Borne Transmission
Vertical Transmission
Risk for Occurrence of Disease in Countries
Experimental Reproduction
Infectivity of Tissues
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Signs and Passive Surveillance
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Detection of BSE in Surveillance and Control Programs
Control of BSE in Cattle
Measures to Protect Human Health
Further Reading
References
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Sheep
Experimental Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Disposition of Disease-Associated PrP
Diagnosis
Strain Tying
Control
References
Scrapie
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Occurrence and Incidence
Host Occurrence
Age
Breed
Methods of Transmission
Sources and Routes of Infection
Horizontal Transmission
Vertical Transmission
Environment
Iatrogenic Transmission
Genetics
Risk Factors
Exposure Factors
Age at Exposure
Infection Status of Parents
Goats
Experimental Reproduction
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Incubation
Early Signs
Advanced Cases
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Control
Individual Flocks
National Eradication
Flock Eradication
Genetic Control and National Programs
Further Reading
References
Chronic Wasting Disease
Further Reading
Parasitic Disease Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Coenurosis Gid, Sturdy
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
References
Halicephalobus
References
Metabolic Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Polioencephalomalacia Cerebrocortical Necrosis of Ruminants
Etiology
Thiamine Inadequacy
Excess Dietary Sulfur
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Dietary Risk Factors
Thiamine Inadequacy
Thiaminases
Sulfur-Induced Polioencephalomalacia
Other Dietary Circumstances
Deprivation of Feed and Water.
Phalaris Aquatica “PEM-Like? Sudden Death in Sheep and Cattle.
Pathogenesis
Thiamine Inadequacy Polioencephalomalacia
Sulfate-Induced Polioencephalomalacia
Acute Cerebral Edema and Laminar Necrosis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Clinical Pathology
Thiamine Inadequacy Polioencephalomalacia.
Brain Imaging Function.
Sulfate-Induced Polioencephalomalacia
Ruminal Hydrogen Sulfide Measurement.
Brain Function.
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Thiamine Hydrochloride
Outbreak Management
Sulfur-Induced Polioencephalomalacia
Control
Thiamine Supplementation
Feeding Roughage
Sulfate Toxicity PEM
Further Reading
References
Thiamine Deficiency Hypothiaminosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Bracken Fern P. aquilinum and Horsetail E. arvense Poisoning in the Horse
Experimental Syndromes
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Thiaminase Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Salt Toxicity Sodium Chloride Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Acute Poisoning
Chronic Poisoning
Clinical Findings
Subclinical Salt Poisoning
Acute Salt Poisoning
Subacute Poisoning
Chronic Salt Poisoning
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Acute Toxicity
Chronic Toxicity
Control
Further Reading
References
Vitamin A Deficiency Hypovitaminosis A
Etiology
Epidemiology
Primary Vitamin A Deficiency
Ruminants on Pasture
Maternal Deficiency
Adequacy of Supplements
Feedlot Cattle
Pigs
Horses
Secondary Vitamin A Deficiency
Pathogenesis
Night Vision and Ocular Abnormalities
Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
Bone Growth
Epithelial Tissues
Embryologic Development
Immune Mechanisms
Clinical Findings
Night Blindness
Xerophthalmia
Ocular Abnormalities
Changes in the Skin
Body Weight
Reproductive Efficiency
Nervous System
Paralysis
Convulsions
Blindness
Congenital Defects
Other Diseases
Anasarca.
Clinical Pathology
Plasma Vitamin A
Plasma Retinol
Plasma Carotene
Hepatic Vitamin A
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Vitamin A
Hypervitaminosis A
Control
Dietary Requirement
Supplementation Method
Parenteral Injection
Oral Vitamin A
References
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Hyponiacinosis
References
Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 Deficiency Hypopyridoxinosis
Reference
Pantothenic Acid Deficiency Hypopantothenosis
Reference
Metabolic and Toxic Encephalomyelopathies
Abnormalities of Consciousness and Behavior
Abnormality Characterized by Tremor and Ataxia
Convulsions
Ataxia Apparently Caused by Proprioceptive Defect
Involuntary Spastic Contraction of Large Muscle Masses
Tremor, Incoordination, and Convulsions
Paresis or Paralysis
Further Reading
References
Inherited Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebrum
Inherited Congenital Hyrdocephalus
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
References
Inherited Hydranencephaly and Arthrogryposis
Inherited Prosencephaly
Inherited Multifocal Symmetric Encephalopathy
Maple Syrup Urine Disease Branched-Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Reference
Inherited Citrullinemia
Inherited Neonatal Spasticity
Doddler Calves
Inherited Idiopathic Epilepsy of Cattle
Familial Narcolepsy
Further Reading
Reference
Congenital and Inherited Encephalomyelopathies
Inherited Lysosomal Storage Diseases
Mannosidosis
α-Mannosidosis
β-Mannosidosis
References
Gangliosidosis
GM1 Gangliosidosis
GM2 Gangliosidosis
References
Gaucher Disease Type 2
Reference
Bovine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB
Reference
Sphingomyelinase Deficiency Niemann?Pick Disease Type a in Cattle
Reference
Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy Galactocerebrosidosis
Inherited Nervous System Abiotrophies
Further Reading
Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis
References
Congenital Necrotizing Encephalopathy in Lambs
Reference
Lavender Foal Syndrome
References
Inherited Hypomyelinogenesis Congenital Tremor Syndromes of Piglets
Further Reading
Diseases Primarily Affecting the Cerebellum
Inherited Cerebellar Defects
Cerebellar Hypoplasia
Cerebellar Atrophy of Lambs Daft Lamb Disease 1
Star-Gazing Lambs Daft Lamb Disease 2
Hereditary Lissencephaly and Cerebellar Hypoplasia in Churra Lambs
References
Inherited Ataxia of Calves
Familial Convulsions and Ataxia in Cattle
Inherited Congenital Spasms of Cattle
Cerebellar Abiotrophy
Cattle
Sheep
Alpaca
Horses
Pigs
References
Diseases Primarily Affecting the Brainstem and Vestibular System
Otitis Media/Interna
Pigs
Calves and Lambs
Horses
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Listeriosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic
Seasonal
Host
Source of Infection
Silage
Transmission
Risk Factors
Host Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Encephalitis/Meningitis
Spinal Myelitis
Mastitis
Enteritis
Clinical Findings
Listerial Encephalitis/Meningitis
Sheep
Cattle
Goats
Listerial Abortion
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Abortion Caused by Listeria Ivanovii
Septicemic Listeriosis
Mastitis
Spinal Myelitis
Keratoconjunctivitis, Uveitis
Enteritis in Sheep
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Central Nervous System Listeriosis
Septicemia and Abortion
Enteritis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Diseases Primarily Affecting the Spinal Cord
Traumatic Injury
Etiology
Physical Trauma
Parasitic Invasion
Local Ischemia of the Spinal Cord
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Fracture of the Cervical Vertebrae in Horses
Spondylosis in Bulls
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
Reference
Spinal Cord Compression
Etiology
Tumors
Vertebral Body or Epidural Abscess
Bony Lesions of Vertebra
Vertebral Subluxation or Compressive Myelopathy
Ataxia in Horses
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Back Pain in Horses
Parasitic Diseases Primarily Affecting the Spinal Cord
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Cerebrospinal Nematodiasis Elaphostrongylosis
References
Setaria
Further Reading
References
Toxic Diseases Primarily Affecting the Spinal Cord
Stringhalt
References
Inherited Diseases Primarily Affecting the Spinal Cord
Spastic Paresis of Cattle Elso Heel
Further Reading
References
Inherited Congenital Myoclonus Hereditary Neuraxial Edema
Inherited Spinal Dysmyelination
Inherited Neurodegeneration Shaker Calf Syndrome
Inherited Spinal Dysraphism
References
Inherited Congenital Posterior Paralysis
Inherited Bovine Degenerative Axonopathy
Degenerative Axonopathy of Tyrolean Grey Cattle
Reference
Central and Peripheral Axonopathy of Maine Anjou Rouge-Des- Prés Cattle
Inherited Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Weaver Syndrome of Brown Swiss Cattle
Inherited Progressive Ataxia
Inherited Spinal Myelinopathy
Inherited Periodic Spasticity of Cattle
Neuraxonal Dystrophy
Neuraxonal Dystrophy of Sheep Segmented Axonopathy
Neuraxonal Dystrophy of Horses
References
Caprine Progressive Spasticity
Inherited Spontaneous Lower Motor Neuron Diseases
Reference
Inherited Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Inherited Hypomyelinogenesis Congenital Tremor of Pigs
Porcine Congenital Progressive Ataxia and Spastic Paresis
Reference
Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Equine Neuraxonal Dystrophy
References
Equine Cervical Vertebral Compressive Myelopathy Wobbler, “Wobbles,? Foal Ataxia, Equine Sensory Ataxia, Cervical Vertebral Instability
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Neurologic Examination
Ancillary Diagnostic Tests
Radiographic Examination
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Motor Neuron Disease
Further Reading
References
Diseases Primarily Affecting the Peripheral Nervous System
Etiology
Inflammatory
Degenerative
Traumatic
Metabolic and Nutritional
Toxic
Tumors
Autonomic Nervous System
Further Reading
References
Tetanus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Case?Fatality Rate
Source of Infection
Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Passive Immunity
Tetanus Antitoxin
Active Immunity
References
Botulism
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Forage Botulism
Carrion-Associated Botulism
Wound Botulism
Toxicoinfectious Botulism
Experimental Reproduction
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environment Risk Factors
Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle and Horses
Sheep
Goats
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Tick Paralysis
Further Reading
References
Ovine “Kangaroo Gait? and Fenugreek Staggers
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
Reference
Polyneuritis Equi Cauda Equina Syndrome
References
Scandinavian Knuckling Syndrome Acquired Equine Polyneuropathy
References
Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
References
15 Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System
Principal Manifestations of Musculoskeletal Disease
Lameness
Abnormal Posture and Movement
Deformity
Muscle and Tendon Defects
Defects of the Skeleton
Joint Defects
Spontaneous Fractures
Painful Aspects of Lameness
Relief of Musculoskeletal Pain
References
Examination of the Musculoskeletal System
Analysis of Gait and Conformation
Close Physical Examination
Radiography
Ultrasonography
Arthrocentesis and Synovial Fluid Interpretation
Arthroscopy
Serum Biochemistry and Enzymology
Muscle Biopsy
Infrared Thermography
Nuclear Scintigraphy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Computed Tomography
Nutritional History
Environment and Housing
References
Diseases of Muscles
Myasthenia Skeletal Muscle Asthenia
Myopathy
Etiology and Epidemiology
Enzootic Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy
Exertional or Postexercise Rhabdomyolysis
Equine Atypical Myopathy Seasonal Pasture Myopathy
Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy
Metabolic
Degenerative Myopathy
Inherited Myopathies
Toxic Agents
Ischemia
Neurogenic
Neoplasms
Pathogenesis
Primary Myopathy
Myoglobinuria
Muscle Enzymes
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
Types of Muscle Fiber Affected
Secondary Myopathy Resulting From Ischemia
Neurogenic Atrophy of Muscle
Clinical Findings
Primary Myopathy
Acute Nutritional Myopathy
Tying-Up
Postanesthetic Myositis
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis
Secondary Myopathy Resulting From Ischemia
Neurogenic Atrophy
Dystrophy of the Diaphragmatic Muscles
Diagnosis
Muscle-Derived Serum Enzymes
Muscle Biopsy
Myoglobinuria
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Reference
Myopathy of Horses
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Reference
Myositis
Acute Myositis of Limb Muscles
Injection-Site Lesions in Cattle
Injection-Site Clostridial Infections in Horses
Reference
Diseases of Bones
Osteodystrophy
Etiology
Nutritional Causes
Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D
Copper Deficiency
Other Nutritional Causes
Chemical Agents
Inherited and Congenital Causes
Physical and Environmental Causes
Tumors
Pathogenesis
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Osteodystrophia Fibrosa
Osteoporosis
Osteodystrophy of Chronic Fluorosis
Congenital Defects of Bone
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Hypertrophic Osteopathy Marie’s Disease
References
Osteomyelitis
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Osseous Sequestration in Cattle
Osteomyelitis Secondary to Trauma
Inflammation of Bone Marrow
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Tail-Tip Necrosis in Beef Cattle
Risk Factors
Treatment
Control
Reference
Laminitis of Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Phenotype
Hyperinsulinemia
Supporting Limb Laminitis
Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Prognosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Treatment of Inciting Process or Disease
Cryotherapy or Digital Cooling
Analgesics and Antiinflammatory Drugs
Vasodilatory Drugs
Anticoagulants
Mechanical Support
Promotion of Healing
Chronic Laminitis
Control
Further Reading
References
Laminitis in Ruminants and Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Cattle and Sheep
Pigs
Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle and Sheep
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Diseases of Joints
Degenerative Joint Disease Osteoarthropathy and Osteochondrosis
Etiology and Epidemiology
Nutritional Causes
Toxic Causes
Steroid Induced
Biomechanical Trauma
Aging Process
Osteochondrosis
Pathogenesis
Primary Osteoarthropathy
Secondary Osteoarthropathy
Osteochondrosis
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Joint Fluid
Radiography
Arthroscopy
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Agents and Opioids
Intraarticular Steroids
Chondroprotective Agents
Hyaluronic Acid
Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan
Other Treatments
Control and Prevention
Further Reading
References
Septic Arthritis Synovitis
Etiology and Epidemiology
Calves
Lambs
Foals
Piglets
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Horses
Pigs
All Species
Pathogenesis
Calves With Experimentally Induced Infectious Arthritis
Lambs With Streptococcus dysgalactiae Polyarthritis
Foals With Septicemia
Horses
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Arthrocentesis
Analysis of Joint Fluid
Culture of Joint Fluid
Serology of Joint Fluid
Radiography
Ultrasonography
Arthroscopy
Nuclear Scintigraphy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Parenteral Antimicrobials
Intraarticular Antimicrobials
Lavage of Joint
Arthroscopy
Surgical Drainage and Arthrotomy
Arthrodesis or Artificial Ankylosis
Physical Therapy
Antiinflammatory Agents and Adjunctive Therapy
Prognosis for Survival and Athletic Use in Horses With Septic Arthritis
Control
Further Reading
References
Lameness in Pigs and Degenerative Joint Disease Osteochondrosis, Osteoarthrosis, Epiphysiolysis and Apophysiolysis, Leg Weakness in Pigs
Leg Disorders
Lameness
Age-Related Changes in Pigs
Young Pigs
Growers and Finishers
Older Animals
Adults
Osteochondrosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Nutrition and Rate of Growth
Genetic and Breed Predisposition
Type of Flooring
Exercise and Confinement
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Radiologic Monitoring of Lesions
Clinical Findings
Epiphysiolysis
Apophysiolysis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Infectious Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System
Borreliosis Lyme Borre liosis, Lyme Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Wildlife
Zoonotic Implications
Methods of Transmission
Pathogenesis
Immune Mechanisms
Clinical Findings
Horses
Cattle
Sheep
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Organism
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Malignant Edema, Clostridial Myonecrosis Gas Gangrene
Etiology
Epidemiology
Source of Infection
Transmission
Animal and Management Risk Factors
Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Reference
Blackleg
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Transmission
Risk Factors
Environment Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Cattle
Sheep
Further Reading
References
Bovine Footrot Infectious Bovine Pododermatitis, Interdigital Phlegmon, Interdigital Necrobacillosis, Foul in the Foot
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission
Environmental Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Interdigital Dermatitis/Stable Footrot
Verrucose Dermatitis
Traumatic Injury
Treatment
Antimicrobials
Local Treatment
Surgical Drainage
Control
Footbaths
Antibacterials
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Bovine Digital Dermatitis, Papillomatous Digital Dermatitis of Cattle Mortellaro’s Disease, Foot Warts, Hairy Foot Warts, “Heel Warts?
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Organism
Serology
Pathology
Treatment
Topical Antimicrobials
Nonantibiotic Topical Formulations
Cleaning the Surface of the Lesion
Bandaging the Lesion
Antimicrobials Parenterally and Topically
Parenteral Antimicrobials
Footbaths
Antibiotics in Footbaths
Treatment Failure
Control
Further Reading
References
Infectious Footrot in Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Host Risk Factors
Age and Sex
Breed
Environmental Risk Factors
Climate and Season
Management
Pasture Type
Pathogen Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Benign and Virulent Footrot
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Virulent Footrot
Benign Footrot
Scoring Systems
Symptomless Carriers
Goats
Cattle
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Topical Treatment
Footbathing for Treatment and Control
Zinc Sulfate Solution 10% to 20%
Formalin Solution 5%
Copper Sulfate Solution 5%
Antibiotic Treatment
Vaccination
Multivalent Vaccines
Mono- and Bivalent Vaccines
Summary of Control Procedures in Infected Flocks
Genetic Selection
Eradication
Introduced Sheep
Further Reading
References
Foot Abscess in Sheep
Heel Abscess/Infectious Bulbar Necrosis
Treatment of Heel Abscess
Toe Abscess
Treatment of Toe Abscess
FURTHER READING
Lamb Arthritis
Chlamydial Polyarthritis
Further Reading
References
Chronic Pectoral and Ventral Midline Abscess in Horses Pigeon Fever
External Abscesses
Internal Abscesses
References
Infectious Polyarthritis Glässer’s Disease, Porcine Polyserositis, and Arthritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Bacteriology
Histology
Serology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Arthritis Resulting From Erysipelas
Erysipelas in Sheep
Arthritis in Lambs
Postdipping Lameness
References
Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Pathology
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Footrot in Pigs Bush Foot
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Ross River Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Zoonotic Implications
Clinical Signs
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Nutritional Diseases Affecting the Musculoskeletal System
Selenium and/or Vitamin E Deficiencies
Etiology
Biological Functions of Selenium and Vitamin E VE
Selenium
Glutathione Peroxidases and Tissue Peroxidation
Vitamin
Interrelationships Between Selenium and Vitamin E
Epidemiology
Enzootic Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy
Occurrence
Geographic Distribution
Selenium in Soil, Plants, and Animals
Selenium in Soils
Selenium in Plants
Factors Influencing the Availability of Soil Selenium to Plants.
Selenium in Animals
Vitamin E
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Diet
Other Myopathic Agents in Diet
Unaccustomed Exercise
Congenital Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy
Vitamin E?Selenium Deficiency Syndrome
Mulberry Heart Disease
Hepatosis Dietetica
Selenium-Responsive Disorders
Subclinical Selenium Insufficiency
Reproductive Performance
Pigs
Sheep
Cattle
Retained Fetal Placenta
Mammary Gland Function
Transport Stress
Resistance to Infectious Disease
Neutrophil Function
Immune Response
General Resistance
Transfer of Selenium and Vitamin E to the Fetus, Colostrum, and Milk
Selenium
Pigs
Vitamin E
Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
Mastitis
Blood Abnormalities
Equine Nutritional Myopathy
Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy
Equine Motor Neuron Disease
Generalized Steatitis
Pathogenesis
Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy
Subclinical Selenium Insufficiency
VESD Syndrome and Others
Clinical Findings
Acute Enzootic Muscular Dystrophy
Subacute Enzootic Muscular Dystrophy
Vitamin E/Selenium Deficiency in Pigs
Mulberry Heart Disease
Hepatosis Dietetica
Clinical Pathology
Myopathy
Plasma Creatine Kinase
Aspartate Aminotransferase
Selenium Status
Selenium Status in Horses
Kidney Cortex and Liver
Blood and Milk
Bulk-Tank Milk
Glutathione Peroxidase
Vitamin E Status
Farmed Red Deer
Pigs
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy
Control
Provide Selenium and Vitamin E
Maternal Transfer to Newborn
Selenium Is Potentially Toxic
Selenium in Milk Supplies
Dietary Requirement of Selenium
Glutathione Peroxidase Activity
Pigs
Different Methods of Supplementation
Dietary Supplementation
Selenium Dose
Individual Injections
Subcutaneous Injections
Cattle and Sheep.
Pigs.
Farmed Red Deer.
Oral Selenium and Anthelmintics
Pasture Top Dressing
Muscular Dystrophy
Beef Cattle and Sheep
Salt?Mineral Mixture
Dairy Cattle
Selenium
Vitamin E
Selenium-Responsive Reproductive Performance and Growth
Sheep
Weak-Calf Syndrome
Pigs
Horses
Intraruminal Selenium Pellets
Sheep
Cattle
Selenium Toxicity and Residues
Selenium Responsiveness
Further Reading
References
Masseter Myonecrosis
References
Sporadic Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Horses Azoturia, Tying-Up
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Dietary Deficiency of Phosphorus, Calcium, and Vitamin D and Imbalance of the Calcium : Phosphorus Ratio
Absorption and Metabolism of Calcium and Phosphorus
References
Calcium Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Specific Syndromes
Primary Calcium Deficiency
Secondary Calcium Deficiency
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Phosphorus Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Cattle
Sheep and Horses
Pigs
Secondary Phosphorus Deficiency
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Serum Phosphorus
Dietary Phosphorus Content
Bone Ash Concentrations
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Phosphorus Requirements
Cattle
Dairy Cattle
Environmental Implications of Phosphorus Feeding of Livestock
Beef Cattle
Feedlot Cattle
Pigs
Phosphorus Supplementation
Further Reading
References
Vitamin D Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Ultraviolet Irradiation
Dietary Vitamin D
Grazing Animals
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Maternal Status
Calcium : Phosphorus Ratio
Other Roles for Vitamin D
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Serum Calcium and Phosphorus
Plasma Vitamin D
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Supplementation
Injection
Further Reading
References
Vitamin D Intoxication
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
References
Rickets
Etiology
Epidemiology
Calves
Lambs
Pigs
Foals
New World Camelids
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Osteomalacia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Ruminants
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Osteodystrophia Fibrosa
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Horse
Pigs
Goats
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
“Bowie? or “Bentleg? in Lambs
Degenerative Joint Disease and Osteoarthritis
Further Reading
References
Manganese Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
References
Biotin Vitamin H Deficiency Hypobiotinosis
Cattle
Sheep
Pigs
Biotin Requirements
Pigs
Horses
References
Toxic Agents Affecting the Musculoskeletal System
Hyena Disease of Cattle
Further Reading
Reference
Calcinogenic Glycoside Poisoning Enzootic Calcinosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Hypoglycin A Intoxication of Horses Atypical Myopathy [Myoglobinuria] in Grazing Horses
References
Plant Poisonings With Known Toxins
Aminopropionitrile
Plant Poisonings With Suspected or Unidentified Toxins
Juglone
Myopathy?With Gait Incoordination, Recumbency, Elevated CPK
Further Reading
Aluminum Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Fluoride Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Supplementary Feeding of Phosphates
Farm Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Intoxication
Chronic Intoxication
Dental Fluorosis
Osteofluorosis
Other Effects
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Congenital Defects of Muscles, Bones, and Joints
Weakness of Skeletal Muscles
Congenital Hyperplasia of Myofiber
Obvious Absence or Deformity of Specific Parts of the Musculoskeletal System
Fixation of Joints
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Foals
Piglets
Congenital Arthrogryposis and Hydranencephaly, Akabane Disease, Cache Valley Virus Disease, Schmallenberg Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Akabane
Cache Valley
Schmallenberg
Aino and Shamonda
Source of Infection
Akabane
Cache Valley
Schmallenberg
Aino
Host and Environmental Risk Factors
Akabane
Cache Valley
Schmallenberg
Experimental Reproduction
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Akabane
Cache Valley
Schmallenberg
Clinical Findings
Akabane
Cache Valley
Schmallenberg
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Hypermobility of Joints
Inherited Diseases of Muscles
Glycogen Storage Diseases
Generalized Glycogenosis Glycogen Storage Disease Type II
Further Reading
Reference
Glycogen Storage Disease Type V Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase Deficiency
References
Inherited Diaphragmatic Muscle Dystrophy
Reference
Congenital Myasthenia Gravis
References
Bovine Familial Degenerative Neuromuscular Disease
Inherited Umbilical Hernia
Myofiber Hyperplasia Double Muscling, Doppelender, Culard
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
References
Inherited Splayed Digits
Inherited Progressive Muscular Dystrophy
Pseudomyotonia of Cattle, Congenital Muscular Dystonia-1
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Congenital Muscular Dystonia Type 1 CMD1
Pseudomyotonia PMT
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Necropsy Findings
Control
References
Ovine Humpyback
Further Reading
Myotonia of Goats Fainting Goats
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Further Reading
References
Myotonia Congenita and Myotonic Dystrophy
References
Recurrent Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbred and Standardbred Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment AND CONTROL
Control
Further Reading
References
Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy of Horses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Acute Episodes
Prevention of Episodes
Control
References
Malignant Hyperthermia in Horses
References
Porcine Stress Syndrome Malignant Hyperthermia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence and Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Porcine Stress Syndrome Transport Death
Malignant Hyperthermia
Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork
Dark, Firm, and Dry Pork
Back-Muscle Necrosis
Clinical Pathology
Halothane Test
Blood Creatine Kinase Levels
Blood Typing
Pale, Soft, and Exudative Pork
Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility
Other Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Genetic Selection
Management of Stressors
Pietrain Creeper Pigs
Further Reading
Asymmetric Hindquarter Syndrome of Pigs
Further Reading
Porcine Congenital Splayleg Splayleg Syndrome in Newborn Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Inherited Diseases of Bones
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Inherited Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Cattle
Sheep
Reference
Inherited Dwarfism
Sheep
Snorter Dwarfs
Inherited Congenital Achondroplasia With Hydrocephalus
Miscellaneous Dwarfs
References
Congenital Osteopetrosis
Reference
Inherited Probatocephaly Sheepshead
Inherited Atlanto-Occipital Deformity
Inherited Agnathia
Inherited Displaced Molar Teeth
Inherited Jaw Malapposition
References
Inherited Cranioschisis Cranium Bifidum
References
Inherited Craniofacial Deformity
References
Inherited Arachnomelia Inherited Chondrodysplasia
Cattle
Sheep
Spider Lamb Syndrome
Inherited Chondrodysplasia in Texel Sheep
References
Complex Vertebral Malformation in Holstein Calves
References
Inherited Reduced Phalanges Amputates, Acroteriasis, Ectromelia
Hereditary Hemimelia
Hereditary Peromelia of Mohair Goats
Amputates
References
Inherited Claw Deformity
References
Inherited Multiple Exostosis
Inherited Congenital Hyperostosis Thick Forelimbs of Pigs
Inherited Rickets
References
Inherited Taillessness and Tail Deformity
References
Congenital Chondrodystrophy of Unknown Origin Ccuo, “Acorn? Calves, Congenital Joint Laxity and Dwarfism, Congenital Spinal Stenosis
References
Inherited Diseases of Joints
Inherited Arthrogryposis Inherited Multiple Tendon Contracture
Simple Arthrogryposis
Arthrogryposis With Dental Dysplasia
Arthrogryposis With Palatoschisis
Arthrogryposis With Multiple Defects
Arthrogryposis in Species Other Than Cattle
Inherited Multiple Ankyloses
References
Inherited Patellar Subluxation
Reference
Inherited Hypermobility Laxity of Joints
Inherited Hip Dysplasia
Reference
16 Diseases of the Skin, Eye, Conjunctiva, and External Ear
Introduction
Primary/Secondary Lesions
Clinical Signs and Special Examination
Lesions
Abnormal Coloration
Pruritus
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
All Species
Secretion Abnormalities of Skin Glands
Abnormalities of Wool and Hair Fibers
Further Reading
Principles of Treatment of Diseases of the Skin
Primary Treatment
Supportive Treatment
Further Reading
Diseases of the Epidermis and Dermis
Pityriasis
Treatment
Hyperkeratosis
References
Parakeratosis
Treatment
Pachyderma
Treatment
Impetigo
Treatment
Urticaria
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Primary Treatment
Supportive Treatment
Further Reading
References
Dermatitis and Dermatosis
Etiology
All Species
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Horses
Pigs
Special Local Dermatitides
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pemphigus
Clinical Pathology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Reference
Photosensitization
Etiology and Epidemiology
Type I, Primary Photosensitization
Type II, Photosensitization as a Result of Aberrant Pigment Metabolism
Type III, Hepatogenous Photosensitization
Plants Containing Hepatotoxins
Plants Containing Steroidal Saponins
Congenitally Defective Hepatic Function
Type IV, Photosensitization of Uncertain Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
General Signs
Skin Lesions
Systemic Signs
Nervous Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
Diseases of the Hair, Wool, Follicles, and Skin Glands
Alopecia and Hypotrichosis
Etiology
Failure of Follicles to Develop
Loss of Follicles
Failure of the Follicle to Produce a Fiber
Congenital
Acquired
Loss of Preformed Fibers
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Achromotrichia
Leukoderma and Leukotrichia
Etiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Further Reading
Vitiligo
Etiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Further Reading
Reference
Seborrhea
Etiology
Clinical Findings
Flexural Seborrhea
Greasy Heel of Cows
Greasy Heel of Horses Scratches
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Folliculitis
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Reference
Diseases of the Subcutis
Subcutaneous Edema Anasarca
Etiology
Increased Hydrostatic Pressure
Hypoproteinemic Hypooncotic Edema
Increased Blood Vessel Permeability
Fetal Anasarca
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Angioedema Angioneurotic Edema
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Subcutaneous Emphysema
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Lymphangitis
Etiology
Cattle
Horse
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Panniculitis
Hematoma
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Primary Treatment
Supportive Treatment
Necrosis and Gangrene
Etiology
Other Causes
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment
Subcutaneous Abscess
Trauma
Hematogenous
Extension
Cutaneous Cysts
Granulomatous Lesions of the Skin
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Reference
Non-Infectious Diseases of the Skin
Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Horses Equine Seasonal Allergic Dermatitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Reduce Exposure to Biting Midges
References
Seasonal Allergic Dermatitis of Sheep
References
Anhidrosis Nonsweating Syndrome, Puff Disease, Dry Coat
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Wetness Maceration
Reference
Cockle
Control
Further Reading
Wool Slip, Wool Loss
Wool Eating
Further Reading
Idiopathic Nasal/Perioral Hyperkeratotic Dermatosis of Camelids Mouth Munge
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
References
Bacterial Diseases of the Skin
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Introduction
Human Public Health
Veterinarians
Pig Farmers
Butchers
Animal MRSA
Etiology
Epidemiology
Distribution
Colonization
Transmission
Risk Factors
Pigs
Cattle
Veal Calves
Sheep and Goats
Small Animals
Horses
Other Species
Poultry
Turkeys
Donkeys
Wild Boar
Backyard Pigs
Camels
Fish
Zoo Animals
Other Sources
Holding Areas
State Fairs
Food
Pathogenesis
Pathology
Diagnosis
Control
Further Reading
References
Dermatophilosis Mycotic Dermatitis Cutaneous Streptotrichosis, Senkobo Disease of Cattle, Lumpy Wool of Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source of Infection
Transmission
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Sheep
Cattle
Temperate Zones
Tropical Zones
Horses
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Experimental Disease
Economic Importance
Sheep
Cattle
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Cattle
Horses
Goats
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Sheep
Cattle
Horses
Control
Further Reading
References
Skin Tuberculosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection Buruli or Bairnsdale Ulcer
References
Fleece Rot in Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Environmental and Host Risk Factors
Fleece Characteristics
Experimental Production
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Control
References
Bolo Disease
Further Reading
Strawberry Footrot of Sheep Proliferative Dermatitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
References
Contagious Acne of Horses Canadian Horsepox, Contagious Pustular Dermatitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Exudative Epidermitis Greasy Pig Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Ulcerative Dermatitis Granulomatous Dermatitis of Pigs
Reference
Viral Diseases of the Skin
Papillomavirus Infection Papillomatosis, Warts
Etiology
Equids
Pigs
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Age
Experimental Production
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Goats
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Vaccination
Control
Further Reading
References
Sarcoid
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence
Methods of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Cowpox and Buffalopox
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Control
References
Pseudocowpox Milkers’ Nodule
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Lumpy Skin Disease Knopvelsiekte
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Experimental Transmission
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Sheeppox and Goatpox
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Methods of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Antigen Detection
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Contagious Ecthyma Contagious Pustular Dermatitis, Orf, Scabby Mouth, Soremouth
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Goats
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Ulcerative Dermatosis of Sheep
Further Reading
Poxvirus Infections in Horses Horsepox, Uasin Gishu, Viral Popular Dermatitis, Equine Molluscum Contagiosum
References
Swinepox
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Methods of Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Dermatomycoses
Ringworm
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence, Source of Infection, and Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Environment and Host Factors
Zoonotic Considerations and Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Local Application
Sprays, Washes
Systemic Treatment
Control
Hygiene
Vaccination
Nutrition
Further Reading
References
Mucormycosis
References
Malassezia spp. Dermatitis
References
Sporotrichosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis, Clinical Findings and Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
Reference
Epizootic Lymphangitis Pseudoglanders, Equine Blastomycosis, Equine Histoplasmosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Zoonotic Potential
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Phycomycosis Swamp Cancer, Pithyosis, Hyphomycosis Destruens, Florida Horse Leech, Bursattee
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Zoonotic Potential
Pathogenesis and Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
References
Maduromycosis
Protozoal Diseases of the Skin
Besnoitiosis Elephant Skin Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Bovine Besnoitiosis
Acute Stage
Chronic Stage
Caprine Besnoitiosis
Equid Besnoitiosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Nematode Infections of the Skin
Summer Sores in Horses Habronemosis
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Rhabditid Dermatitis
Reference
Onchocerciasis Worm Nodule Disease
References
Parafilariosis
References
Stephanofilariasis
Cutaneous Myiasis
Blow-Fly Strike of Sheep
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
The Fly Population
Susceptibility of Sheep
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Reduction of Fly Numbers
Prediction of Risk Periods
Treatment and Prevention
Reducing the Susceptibility of Sheep
Further Reading
References
Screwsworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and Chrysomyia bezziana
Etiology
Epidemiology
Life Cycle
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Wohlfahrtiosis Flesh Fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Recommendation
References
Mite Infestations
Harvest Mites Chigger Mites
Recommendations
References
Itchmites Psorergates ovis, Psorergates bos
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment and Control
Demodectic Mange Follicular Mange
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
Reference
Sarcoptic Mange Barn Itch
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
Recommendation
Reference
Psoroptic Mange Sheep Scab, Body Mange, Ear Mange
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Goats
Horses
Cattle
Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
Recommendation
References
Chorioptic Mange Tail Mange, Leg Mange, Scrotal Mange
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment and Control
References
Ked and Louse Infestations
Sheep Ked Melophagus ovinus
Life Cycle
Control
References
Louse Infestations Pediculosis
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Sucking Lice
Chewing Lice
Clinical Findings and Diagnosis
Sucking Lice
Chewing Lice
Treatment and Control
Recommendation
References
Miscellaneous Skin Diseases Caused by Flies, Midges, and Mosquitoes
Stable Flies Stomoxys calcitrans
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment and Control
Recommendation
References
Horse Flies, March Flies or Breeze Flies Tabanus Spp., and Deer Flies Chrysops, Haematopota, and Pangonia Spp.
Recommendation
Reference
Hypoderma spp. Infestation Warble Flies
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Macrocyclic Lactone Compounds
Treatment Recommendations
Manual Removal
Control
References
Horn Flies and Buffalo Flies Haematobia spp.
Etiology
Life Cycle and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Treatment and Control
Recommendation
References
Black Flies, Buffalo Gnats Simuliidae
Housefly Muscidae? Musca domestica
Recommendation
Bush Flies Musca vetustissima
Recommendation
Reference
Face Fly Musca autumnalis
Recommendation
Head Fly Hydrotoea irritans
Reference
Biting Midges Ceratopogonidae
References
Mosquitoes Culicidae
Tick Infestations
Bacterial, Viral, and Rickettsial Diseases Transmitted by Ticks
Ticks That Cause Direct Losses
Treatment and Control of Tick Infestations
Acaricidal Agents
Organophosphates
Pyrethroids
Macrocyclic Lactones
Use of Resistant Cattle
Pasture Management
Vaccination
Eradication
Further Reading
References
Deficiencies and Toxicities Affecting the Skin
Zinc Deficiency Parakeratosis
Etiology
Pigs
Ruminants
Epidemiology
Pigs
Ruminants
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Pigs
Ruminants
Sheep
Infertility in Ewes
Goats
Clinical Pathology
Skin Scraping
Zinc in Serum and Hair
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Pigs
Ruminants
References
Plant Poisoning Associated With Known Toxins
Dianthrone Derivatives
Fagopyrin
Furocoumarin
Plant Poisonings Associated With Unidentified Toxins
Dermatitis
Photosensitization?Primary; Without Hepatic Lesions
References
Selenium Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Pastoral
Dosing Errors
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Poisoning
Chronic Poisoning
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Acute
Chronic
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Selenium Levels in Tissue.
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Iodine Toxicosis
Etiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology/Necropsy
Further Reading
References
Cutaneous Neoplasms
Papilloma and Sarcoid
Squamous-Cell Carcinoma
References
Melanoma
Pathophysiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Further Reading
References
Lipoma
References
Mast Cell Tumors
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
References
Lymphomatosis
Neurofibromatosis
Histiocytoma
Cutaneous Angiomatosis
Hemangioma and Hemangiosarcoma
Congenital Skin Tumors
Cattle
Pigs
Foals
Further Reading
Congenital and Inherited Defects of the Skin
References
Inherited Albinism
Disorders of Coat Color, Pseudoalbinism, and Lethal Whites
References
Inherited Symmetric Alopecia
Inherited Congenital Hypotrichosis
Viable Hypotrichosis
Nonviable Hypotrichosis
Congenital Hypotrichosis and Anodontia Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia
References
Streaked Hairlessness
Partial Hypotrichosis
Hypotrichosis and Coat-Color Dilution?“Rat-Tail Syndrome? in Calves
Reference
Inherited Hair-Coat-Color-Linked Follicle Dysplasia
Inherited Birthcoat Retention
Inherited Leukoderma
Inherited Epidermal Dysplasia Baldy Calves
Inherited Parakeratosis of Calves Lethal Trait A46, Adema Disease
Inherited Dyserythropoiesis?Dyskeratosis
Inherited Congenital Absence of the Skin
Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta Aplasia Cutis
Reference
Familial Acantholysis
Epidermolysis Bullosa
Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa Hereditary Junctional Mechanobullous Disease
Red Foot Disease of Sheep
Further Reading
References
Inherited Hyperbilirubinemia and Photosensitization
Inherited Congenital Ichthyosis Fish-Scale Diseases
Inherited Dermatosis Vegetans of Pigs
Dermatosparaxis Hyperelastosis Cutis
References
Inherited Melanoma
Inherited Hyperhidrosis
Lavender Foal Syndrome
Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia Hyperelastosis Cutis
References
Dermatosis Vegetans
Further Reading
Pustular Psoriaform Dermatitis Pityriasis Rosea
Treatment
Eye and Conjunctival Diseases
Conjunctivitis and Keratoconjunctivitis
Etiology
Specific Conjunctivitis
Cattle
Sheep and Goats
Pigs
Horses
Secondary Diseases in Which Conjunctivitis Is a Significant but Secondary Part of the Syndrome
Cattle
Sheep
Pigs
Horses
Nonspecific Conjunctivitis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
References
Listerial Keratoconjunctivitis and Uveitis Silage Eye, Bovine Iritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Environmental Risk Factors
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
References
Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis of Cattle Pinkeye, Blight
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Animal Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Topical Therapy
Subconjunctival Therapy
Parenteral Therapy
Ancillary Therapy
Control
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Ovine and Caprine Contagious Ophthalmia Ovine and Caprine Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis, Contagious Conjunctivo-Keratitis, Pinkeye in Sheep and Goats
Etiology
Mycoplasma conjunctivae
Other Mycoplasmas
Chlamydophila pecorum
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Eyes Associated with Mycoplasma spp.
Thelaziasis Eyeworm
References
“Bright Blindness? of Sheep Caused by Bracken Ingestion
Bovine Ocular Squamous-Cell Carcinoma
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Ocular Squamous-Cell Carcinoma
Further Reading
References
Inherited Eye Defects
Combined Ocular Defects
Inherited Nystagmus
Familial Undulatory Nystagmus
Pendular Nystagmus
References
External Ear Diseases
Otitis Externa
Further Reading
Ear-Tip Necrosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
References
Inherited Crop Ears
17 Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases
Introduction
Metabolic Diseases of Ruminants
Periparturient Period in Cattle and Sheep
Transition Period in Dairy Cows
Voluntary Dry Matter Intake in Periparturient Dairy Cattle
Immunosuppression During the Transition Period
Diseases of Lactation
Relationship Between Lactational Performance and Health of Dairy Cattle
Breed Susceptibility
Management Practices
Occurrence and Incidence of Metabolic Diseases
Record Keeping
Metabolic Profile Testing
Usefulness of Metabolic Profile Testing
Biological and Statistical Basis for Herd Testing
Variables in Dairy-Herd Metabolic Profile Testing
Energy Balance
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
β-Hydroxybutyrate
Glucose
Protein Evaluation
Urea Nitrogen
Albumin
Liver Function and Injury
Macromineral Evaluation
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Hematology
Hematocrit Packed Cell Volume
Urine Evaluation
Timing of Blood Tests
In Relation to Feed Changes
In Relation to Feeding
In Relation to Calving Pattern and Seasonal Feeding Changes
Selection of Cows
Dry-Cow Group
Early-Lactation Group
Midlactation Group
Energy.
Protein.
Background Information
Interpretation of Results at the Farm
Written Advice
Milk Production, Activity Meters, and Rumination Monitors
Body-Condition Score
Score: 1
Score: 2
Score: 3
Score: 4
Score: 5
Relationships Among International Body-Condition Scoring Systems
Further Reading
References
Parturient Paresis Milk Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Cattle
Age.
Breed.
Individual Cows.
Time of Occurrence.
Stressors.
Sheep and Goats
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Clinical Hypocalcemia
Subclinical Hypocalcemia
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Calcium Homeostasis.
Body-Condition Score.
Dietary and Environmental Risk Factors
Dietary Calcium.
Dietary Potassium.
Dietary Magnesium.
Dietary Phosphorus.
Dietary Cation?Anion Difference.
Economic Importance
Milk Fever Relapses.
Downer-Cow Complications.
Dystocia and Reproductive Disease.
Retained Placenta.
Metritis.
Milk Production.
Mastitis.
Displacement of Abomasum.
Ketosis.
Body Weight.
Culling.
Pathogenesis
Hypocalcemia
Experimental Hypocalcemia
Hypomagnesemia
Hypophosphatemia
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Concurrent Hypomagnesemia.
Sheep and Goats
Clinical Pathology
Serum Muscle Enzyme Activity
Hemogram
Necropsy Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Metabolic Diseases
Diseases Associated With Toxemia and Shock
Injuries to the Pelvis and Pelvic Limbs
Degenerative Myopathy Ischemic Muscle Necrosis
Downer-Cow Syndrome
Nonparturient Hypocalcemia
Hypocalcemic Paresis in Sheep and Goats
Hypocalcemia in Sows
Treatment
Standard Treatment
Routes of Administration
IV Route
Typical Response to Intravenous Ca-Borogluconate
Unfavorable Response to Intravenous Ca-Borogluconate
SC Route
Oral Route
Failure to Respond to Treatment
General Management and Clinical Care Procedures
Control
Reduction of Dietary Calcium Available for Intestinal Absorption
Dietary Calcium Concentration in Late Gestation
Practicality of Feeding Diets Low in Calcium
Binding Dietary Calcium
Level of Phosphorus in Diet
Calcium-to-Phosphorus Ratio in Diet
Induction of Mild to Moderate Acidosis During Late Gestation: Cation?Anion Difference
Anionic Salts for Acidification of Prepartum Diets for Dairy Cows
Ammonium Chloride.
Strategies for Supplementing Anion Sources
DCAD and Acid?Base Balance of Dairy Cows on Pasture-Based Diets
Summary of Macromineral Nutritional Strategies for the Prevention of Hypocalcemia in the Soon-to-Calve or Transition Dairy Cow in Pasture-Based Systems
Supplementation of Vitamin D During the Dry Period
Parenteral Vitamin D3 Application
Oral Vitamin D Administration
Oral Calcium Supplementation Around Parturition
Parenteral Calcium Supplementation Around Parturition
Partial Milking
Further Reading
References
Acute Hypokalemia in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Skeletal Muscle Potassium Content
Plasma Potassium Concentration
Milk Potassium Concentration
Erythrocyte Potassium Concentration
Urine Potassium Concentration
Salivary Potassium Concentration
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Downer-Cow Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Complication of Milk Fever.
Traumatic Injuries to Pelvis and Pelvic Limbs.
Serum Electrolyte Imbalances.
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Compartment Syndrome
Crush Syndrome
Experimental Sternal Recumbency
Clinical Findings
Clinical Examination of the Downer Cow
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Antiinflammatory Therapy
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
Bedding and Clinical Care
Assisted Lifting to Aid Standing
Handling, Transportation, and Disposition of Nonambulatory Cattle
Euthanasia
Control
Further Reading
References
Hypomagnesemic Tetanies
Hypomagnesemic Tetany Lactation Tetany, Grass Tetany, Grass Staggers, Wheat Pasture Poisoning
Etiology
Magnesium Homeostasis
Dietary Intake
Renal Excretion
Magnesium Reserves
Lactation
Factors Influencing Absorption of Magnesium
Na : K Ratio in Rumen
Other Factors Influencing Absorption
Magnesium in Pastures and Tetany Hazard
Required Magnesium Concentrations
Magnesium Availability in Pastures and Hazard
Winter Hypomagnesemia
Hypomagnesemia and Hypocalcemia
Summary of Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Risk Factors for Lactation Tetany
Occurrence and Risk Factors for Wheat Cereal Pasture Poisoning
Occurrence and Risk Factors for Winter Hypomagnesemia
Morbidity and Mortality
Pasture Risk Factors
Pasture Species
Cereal Pastures
Season
Fertilization
Soil Type
Animal and Management Risk Factors
Dry Matter Intake
Period of Food Deprivation
Alimentary Sojourn
Climate
Animal Movement
Intensive Dairies
Hypomagnesemia in Sheep
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Lactation Tetany
Subacute Lactation Tetany
Chronic Hypomagnesemia
Parturient Paresis With Hypomagnesemia
Clinical Pathology
Serum Magnesium Concentrations
Magnesium Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Vitreous Humor
Urine Magnesium Concentrations
Herd Diagnosis
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Combined Calcium/Magnesium Therapy
Magnesium Therapy
Provision for Further Cases
Control
Feeding of Magnesium Supplements
Problems With Palatability
Spraying on Hay
Pellets
Routine Daily Drenching
Heavy Magnesium “Bullets?
Top Dressing of Pasture
Foliar Dusting and Spraying
Provision in Drinking Water
Management of Pasture Fields
Provision of Shelter
Time of Calving
Feeding on Hay and Unimproved Pasture
Further Reading
References
Hypomagnesemic Tetany of Calves
Etiology
Magnesium Homeostasis in the Calf
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Supplementary Feeding of Magnesium
Magnesium Alloy Bullets
References
Transport Recumbency of Ruminants
Ketosis and subclinical Ketosis Hyperketonemia in Cattle
Etiology
Glucose Metabolism in Cattle
Energy Balance
Hepatic Insufficiency in Ketosis
Ketone Formation
Role of Insulin and Glucagon
Etiology of Bovine Ketosis
Individual Cow Variation
Types of Bovine Ketosis
Primary Ketosis Production Ketosis
Secondary Ketosis
Alimentary Ketosis
Starvation Ketosis
Ketosis Resulting From Specific Nutritional Deficiency
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal and Management Risk Factors
Age.
Body-Condition Score.
Season.
Other Interactions.
Economic Significance
Pathogenesis
Bovine Ketosis
Clinical Findings
Subclinical Ketosis Hyperketonemia
Clinical Pathology
Glucose
Ketones
Milk and Urine Cow-Side Tests
Milk Testing.
Urine Testing.
Milk-Fat-to-Protein Ratio.
Clinical Chemistry and Hematology.
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Replacement Therapy
Glucose Dextrose
Other Sugars
Propylene Glycol and Glycerine/Glycerol
Other Glucose Precursors
Hormonal Therapy
Glucocorticoids.
Miscellaneous Treatments.
Control
Energy Supplements
Propionic Acid and Its Salts
Ionophores
Corticosteroids
Ancillary Agents
General Control
Herd Monitoring.
Further Reading
References
Fatty Liver in Cattle Fat-Mobilization Syndrome, Fat-Cow Syndrome, Hepatic Lipidosis, Pregnancy Toxemia in Cattle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Incidence
Risk Factors
Host Factors
Genetics of Lipid Mobilization
Environmental and Dietary Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Serum Biochemistry
Hemogram
Liver Biopsy and Analysis
Ultrasonography of the Liver
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy.
Glucagon.
Glucocorticoids.
Outbreaks in a Herd.
Control
Dry Matter Intake and Energy Balance in the Transition Period
Metabolic Adaptations During the Transition Period
Glucose Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Nutritional Management to Support Metabolic Adaptations During the Transition Period
Grouping Strategies
Strategies to Meet Glucose Demands and Decrease NEFA Supply During the Transition Period
Carbohydrate Formulation of the Prepartum Diet.
Direct Supplementation With Glucogenic Precursors.
Added Fat in Transition Diets.
Effects of Specific Fatty Acids on NEFA Supply.
Further Reading
References
Pregnancy Toxemia Twin Lamb Disease in Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Primary Pregnancy Toxemia
Fat-Ewe Pregnancy Toxemia
Starvation Pregnancy Toxemia
Secondary Pregnancy Toxemia
Stress-Induced Pregnancy Toxemia
Occurrence
Experimental Reproduction
Animal Risk Factors
Pregnancy
Parity
Breed
Economic Significance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Parenteral Therapy
Oral Therapy
Cesarean Section
Control
Prevention
Further Reading
References
Steatitis, Panniculitis, and Fat Necrosis
References
Inherited Metabolic Diseases of Ruminants
Deficiency of UMP Synthase Dumps
References
Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves
Metabolic Diseases of Horses
Equine Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction Formerly Equine Cushing Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Metabolic Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Diagnosis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Treatment
Dietary Management
Exercise
Medications
Further Reading
References
Pheochromocytoma Paraganglioma
References
Glycogen Branching Enzyme Deficiency in Horses
References
Lactation Tetany of Mares Eclampsia, Transport Tetany
References
Equine Hyperlipemia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Disorders of Thyroid Function Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Congenital Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Adenoma
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Thyroid Hormone Assays
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Iodine Deficiency
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Dietary and Environmental Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Inherited Goiter
Diseases Caused by Nutritional Deficiencies
Introduction
Evidence of a Deficiency as the Cause of the Disease
Diet
Abnormal Absorption
Abnormal Utilization of Ingested Nutrients
Abnormal Requirement
Evidence of a Deficiency Associated With the Disease
Evidence Based on Cure or Prevention by Correction of the Deficiency
Monitoring of Nutritional Status
Nutritional Management in Dairy Herds
Levels of Nutritional Service
Level 1: Problem Identification and Analysis
Level 2: Ration Analysis
Level 3: Ration Formulation
Level 4: Total Program Consulting
Nutritional Management of the Beef Breeding Herd
Nutritional Advice for Beef Feedlots
Nutritional Advice for Swine-Herds
Nutritional Advice for Sheep Flocks
Placental and Fetal Growth
Lamb Losses
Ewe Body-Condition Score
Further Reading
Deficiencies of Energy and Protein
Deficiency of Energy
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Deficiency of Protein
Clinical Findings
Prevention
Further Reading
Reference
Low-Milk-Fat Syndrome
References
Diseases Associated With Deficiencies of Mineral Nutrients
Prevalence and Economic Importance
Diagnostic Strategies
Deficiencies in Developing Countries
Pathophysiology of Trace-Element Deficiency
Laboratory Diagnosis of Mineral Deficiencies
Further Reading
References
18 Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System
Infectious Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System
Induction of Parturition
Calves
Lambs
Foals
Piglets
Further Reading
References
Freemartinism in Calves
Further Reading
Buller Steer Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Clinical Findings
Control
Further Reading
Reference
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Cattle
Camelids
Wildlife Species
Horses
Pigs and Sheep
Dogs
Methods of Transmission
Parturition/Abortion
Transmission
Spread Between Herds
Spread Between Countries Breach of Biosecurity
Congenital Infection
Survival of Organism
Uterine Discharges and Milk
Bulls and Semen
Carrier Cows
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Abortion
Orchitis and Epididymitis
Synovitis
Fistulous Withers
Clinical Pathology
Identification of Brucella spp.
Staining
Culture
Detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
Serologic Tests
Agglutination Tests
Serum Agglutination Test
Rose Bengal Test Buffered Plate Antigen or Card Test
Complement Fixation Test
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays
Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Fluorescence Polarization Assay
Brucellin Skin Test
Sensitivity and Specificity of Serologic Tests
Antibodies in Milk
False-Positive Reactors
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control and Eradication
Test and Reduction of Reservoir of Infection
Quarantine
Depopulation
Vaccination
Education
Guidelines
Control by Vaccination
Brucella abortus Strain 19 Vaccine
Efficiency of Brucella abortus Strain 19 Vaccine
Calfhood Vaccination.
Adult Vaccination.
Systemic Reactions to Vaccination With Strain 19
Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Vaccine
Brucella Vaccines in Wildlife
Brucella abortus Strain 19 in Bison
Brucella abortus Strain RB51 in Bison
Brucella abortus Strain RB51 in Elk Cervus elaphus canadensis
Control Programs on a Herd Basis
During an Abortion Storm
Heavily Infected Herds in Which Few Abortions Are Occurring
Lightly Infected Herds
Hygienic Measures
Eradication on an Area Basis by Test and Slaughter and Cessation of Calfhood Vaccination
United States
Market Cattle Testing
Milk Ring Testing
Australia
New Zealand
Canada
Infectious Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System
Further Reading
References
Brucellosis Associated With Brucella Ovis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source of Infection
Transmission
Host Risk Factors
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Semen Examination
Culture
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Eradication
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Brucellosis Associated With Brucella Suis in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Biovar 1
Biovar 2
Biovar 3
Biovar 4
Biovar 5
Host Occurrence
Biovar 1
Biovar 2
Biovar 4
Source of Infection
Host and Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sows
Boars
Piglets
Clinical Pathology
Culture
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccination
Test and Disposal
References
Brucellosis Associated With Brucella Melitensis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Source of Infection
Reproductive Tract
Milk
Transmission
In Utero Infection
Colostrum and Milk
Host and Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture and Molecular Tests
Serology
Milk Tests
Allergic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Hygiene
Eradication
Rev. 1 Vaccination
Other Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Abortion in Ewes Associated With Salmonella Abortusovis
Further Reading
Reference
Abortion in Mares and Septicemia in Foals Associated With Salmonella Abortusequi Abortivoequina Equine Paratyphoid
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Chlamydial Abortion Enzootic Abortion of Ewes, Ovine Enzootic Abortion
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Control
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Coxiellosis Q-fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Transmission
Pathogen Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Control
Further Reading
References
Diseases of the Genital Tract Associated With Mycoplasma Spp.
References
Equine Coital Exanthema
Further Reading
References
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome PRRS
Introduction
Etiology
Genome
North American Viruses Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
European Viruses Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
High Pathogenicity Viruses
Spread of High Pathogenicity Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Experimental Infections With High Pathogenicity Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Economic Loss
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Mortality
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Methods of Transmission
Presence Within the Herd
Introduction of Vaccinated Animals
Other Sources
Fomites
Meat
Insects
Virus Survival
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Effects on Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
Receptors
Virus Entry
Replication
General Effects of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus on the Immune System
Macrophage Damage
Toll-Like Receptors
Modulation of Immune Responses
Cellular Changes Natural Killer, T-Regulatory, etc.
Cytokines
Interferons
Differential Effects in Different Parts of the Body
Differential Effects of Different Strains
Strain Variations
High Pathogenicity Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Pathogenesis
Development of Lesions
High Pathogenecity Procine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Responses
Immunology
Clinical Findings
Concurrent Infections
Reproductive Failure
Respiratory Disease
Clinical Signs in High Pathogenicity Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Clinical Pathology
Acute Phase Proteins
Detection or Isolation of Virus
Boars
Serology
Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay Test
Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay iELISA
Indirect Florescent Antibody Assay IFAT
Modified Serum Neutralization Test
Herd Diagnosis
Oral Fluids
Antigen Detection
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Filtration Systems
Eradication of the Virus From the Herd
Depopulation and Repopulation
Control in Infected Herds
Nursery Depopulation
Management of the Gilt Pool
Controlled Infection of Breeding Herd
Control of Secondary Infections
Biosecurity
Vaccine and Vaccination
Vaccination of Gilts
Inactivated Vaccines
Live Vaccines
Vaccination Against High Pathogenicity Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Vaccination of Boars
Further Reading
References
Menangle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Japanese Encephalitis Je; Japanese B Encephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinicial Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
Control
Further Reading
Neosporosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Methods of Transmission
Experimental Studies
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Dourine Maladie Du Coit
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Measures of Disease Occurrence
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxic Agents Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System
Estrogenic Substances
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Idiopathic Female Estrogenism
Male Estrogenism
Nymphomania in Cows
Swine Estrogenism
Urethral Obstruction
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Further Reading
References
Phytoestrogen Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Human Factors
Plant Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Ewes
Male Castrates
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Zearalenone Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Swine
Ruminants
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome Early Fetal Loss, Late Fetal Loss, Fibrinous Pericarditis, and Unilateral Uveitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Early Fetal Loss
Late Fetal Loss
Fibrinous Pericarditis
Unilateral Uveitis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Equine Amnionitis and Fetal Loss
References
Plants and Fungi Unknown Toxins Affecting the Reproductive System
Plants
Plants Associated With Abortion
Plants Associated With Prolonged Gestation
Plants Associated With Congenital Defects
Fungi
Fungi Associated With Reproductive Dysfunction
Congenital and Inherited Diseases Primarily Affecting the Reproductive System
Chromosomal Translocations in Cattle
References
Inherited Prolonged Gestation Adenohypophyseal Hypoplasia
Prolonged Gestation With Fetal Gigantism
Prolonged Gestation With Craniofacial Deformity
Prolonged Gestation With Arthrogryposis
References
Inherited Inguinal Hernia and Cryptorchidism
Inguinal Hernias
Cryptorchidism
References
19 Perinatal Diseases
Introduction
Perinatal and Postnatal Diseases
General Classification
Fetal Diseases
Parturient Diseases
Postnatal Diseases
Perinatal Disease?General Epidemiology
Lambs
Mortality Rates
Major Causes
Fetal Disease
Parturient Disease
Postnatal Disease
Birth Weight
Environmental Factors
Infectious Disease
Other Factors
Recording Systems
Dairy Calves
Mortality Rates
Perinatal Mortality Rates
Neonatal Mortality Rates
Fetal Disease/Abortion
Major Causes
Perinatal Mortality
Postnatal Mortality
Postnatal Disease
Management
Beef Calves
Mortality Rates
Major Causes
Fetal Disease
Parturient Disease
Postnatal Disease
Piglets
Mortality Rates
Major Causes
Fetal Disease
Parturient Disease
Postnatal Disease
Management
Foals
Mortality Rates
Major Causes
Fetal Disease
Parturient Disease
Postnatal Disease
New World Camelid Crias
Mortality Rates
Major Causes
Fetal Disease
Parturient Disease
Postnatal Disease
Further Reading
References
Perinatal Disease?Special Investigation of Any Neonatal Deaths Illness
Further Reading
Perinatal Disease?Congenital Defects
Etiology
Chromosomal Abnormality and Inheritance
Viral and Other Infections
Nutritional Deficiency
Poisonous Plants
Farm Chemicals
Physical Insults
Environmental Influences
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Structural Malformations and Deformations
Viral Teratogenesis
Inherited Congenital Defects
Clinical and Necropsy Findings
Clinical Pathology
Further Reading
Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Etiology
Further Reading
Physical and Environmental Causes of Perinatal Disease
Perinatology
Heart Rate
Ultrasound Examination
Prematurity
Further Reading
References
Prematurity and Dysmaturity of Foals
References
Parturient Injury and Intrapartum Death
Trauma at Parturition
References
Fetal Hypoxia
References
Hypothermia in Newborns
Lambs
Heat Loss in Excess of Summit Metabolism
Hypothermia From Depleted Energy Reserves
Calves
Piglets
Foals
References
Maternal Nutrition and the Newborn
Further Reading
References
Poor Mother?Young Relationship
References
Teeth Clipping of Piglets
Failure of Transfer of Passive Immunity Failure of Transfer of Colostral Immunoglobulin
Normal Transfer of Immunoglobulins
Lactogenic Immunity
Failure of Transfer of Passive Immunity
Determinants of Immunoglobulin Concentration in Colostrum
Volume of Colostrum Ingested
Dairy Cows
Beef Cows
Ewes
Sows
All Species
Efficiency of Absorption
Feeding Methods, “Closure of the Gut,? and Immunoglobulin Absorption
Natural Sucking
Artificial Feeding
Other Influences
Decline of Passive Immunity
Other Benefits of Colostrum
Assessment of Transfer of Passive Immunity
Assessment in the Individual Animal
Assessment Tests on Serum
Radial Immunodiffusion
Lateral-Flow Immunoassay
Turbidimetric Immunoassay
Zinc Sulfate Turbidity Test
Sodium Sulfite Precipitation Test
Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase Activity
Serum Total Protein
Glutaraldehyde Coagulation Test
Latex Agglutination Test
ELISA Snap-Test
Monitoring Colostrum
Brix Refractometry
Specific Gravity
Glutaraldehyde Test
ELISA
Correction of Failure of Transfer of Passive Immunity
Oral Therapy
Parenteral Immunoglobulins
Avoidance of Failure of Transfer of Passive Immunity
Colostrum
Colostrum for Banking
Storage of Colostrum
Pasteurization of Colostrum
Cross-Species Colostrum
Colostrum Supplements
Lacteal-Secretion-Based Preparations
Bovine-Serum-Based Preparations
Administration of Colostrum
Foals
Dairy Calves
Assisted Natural Sucking
Artificial Feeding Systems
Beef Calves
Lambs
Piglets
Further Reading
References
Clinical Assessment and Care of Critically Ill Newborns
Clinical Examination
Sepsis
Prematurity and Dysmaturity
Hypoxia
Hypoglycemia
Endocrine Abnormalities
Diagnostic Imaging
Clinical Pathology
Serum Immunoglobulin Concentration
Hematology
Serum Biochemistry
Blood Gas
Blood Culture
Other Body Fluids
Treatment
Nursing Care
Correction of Failure of Transfer of Passive Immunity
Colostral Immunoglobulin
Critical Plasma IgG Concentrations in Foals
Plasma Transfusion
Nutritional Support
Antimicrobial Treatment
Fluid Therapy
Respiratory Support
Gastroduodenal Ulcer Prophylaxis
Common Complications
Prognosis
Further Reading
References
Stillbirth/Perinatal Weak-Calf Syndrome
Historical Aspects
Dummy-Calf Syndrome
Etiology and Epidemiology
Fetal Infections
Maternal Nutritional Deficiency Causing Fetal Underdevelopment
Placental Insufficiency
Fetal Hypoxemia
Dystocia and Traumatic Injuries at Birth
Premature Expulsion of Placenta
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control and Prevention
Further Reading
References
Diseases of Cloned Offspring
Further Reading
References
Equine Neonatal Maladjustment Syndrome Neonatal Encephalopathy, Dummy Foal, Barkers, and Wanderers
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Diagnostic Confirmation
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Postmortem Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Neonatal Infectious Diseases
Etiology
Calves
Pigs
Foals
Lambs
Calves
Lambs
Foals
All Species
Epidemiology
Sources of Infection
Postnatal Infection
Prenatal Infection
Routes of Transmission
Risk Factors and Modulation of Infection
Immunity
Immune Responsiveness
Exposure Pressure
Age at Exposure
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
References
Principles of Control and Prevention of Neonatal Infectious Diseases
Reduction of Risk of Acquisition of Infection From the Environment
Removal of the Newborn From the Infectious Environment
Increasing the Nonspecific Resistance of the Newborn
Increasing the Specific Resistance of the Newborn
Further Reading
References
Colibacillosis of Newborn Calves, Piglets, Lambs, Kids, and Foals
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Cattle and Calves
Piglets
Morbidity and Mortality Rates
Calves
Piglets
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Animal Species
Age and Birth Weight
Immunity and Colostrum
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Meteorologic Influences
Nutrition and Feeding Methods
Standard of Housing and Hygiene
Source of the Organism and Its Ecology and Transmission
Pathogen Risk Factors
Virulence Factors of E. coli
Lambs
Zoonotic Implications of E. coli
Pathogenesis
Septicemic Colibacillosis Coliform Septicemia
Enteric Colibacillosis
Enterotoxigenic Colibacillosis
Diarrhea, Dehydration, Metabolic Acidosis, and Electrolyte Imbalance
Hyperkalemia in the Diarrheic Calf
Hypernatremia in the Diarrheic Calf
Effect of Colostral Immunoglobulin Status
Intestinal Mucosa
Attaching and Effacing Colibacillosis
Synergism Between Enteropathogens
Summary of Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Calves
Coliform Septicemia
Predictors of Septicemia
Enteric Colibacillosis
Lambs and Goat Kids
Piglets
Coliform Septicemia
Enterotoxigenic Colibacillosis
Newborn Piglet Diarrhea
Postweaning Diarrhea
Clinical Pathology
Culture and Detection of Organism
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Coliform Septicemia
Enteric Colibacillosis
Treatment
Coliform Septicemia
Enteric Colibacillosis
Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement
Categorizing Diarrheic Calves Into Treatment Groups
Antimicrobial Therapy
Change in Small Intestinal Bacterial Flora in Calves With Diarrhea
Incidence of Bacteremia in Calves With Diarrhea
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates
Surveillance for Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates
Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Escherichia coli Isolates
Evidence-Based Recommendations for Antimicrobial Treatment of Diarrheic Calves
Administration of Oral Antimicrobials to Treat Escherichia coli Overgrowth of the Small Intestine
Administration of Parenteral Antimicrobials to Treat Escherichia coli Bacteremia
Use of Antimicrobials That Are of Critical Importance for Human and Veterinary Medicine
Immunoglobulin Therapy
Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Therapy
Antimotility Drugs
Intestinal Protectants
Alteration of the Diet
Probiotics
Clinical Management of Outbreaks
Control
Reduction of the Degree of Exposure of the Newborn to the Infectious Agents
Dairy Calves
Beef Calves
Veal Calves
Lambs and Kids
Piglets
Provision of Maximum Nonspecific Resistance With Adequate Colostrum and Optimum Animal Management
Colostrum Management
Quality of Colostrum
Specific Gravity
Frozen and Thawed Colostrum
Pasteurization of Colostrum
Colostrum Supplements and Replacers
Purified Bovine Immunoglobulin
Beef Calves
Lambs
Piglets
Increasing Specific Resistance of the Newborn by Vaccinating the Pregnant Dam or the Newborn
Calves
Piglets
Competitive Exclusion Culture
Lambs and Kids
Further Reading
References
Watery Mouth of Lambs Rattle Belly, Slavers
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Animal and Environmental Risk Factors
Experimental Disease
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Omphalitis, Omphalophlebitis, and Urachitis in Newborn Farm Animals Navel Ill
Omphalitis
Omphalophlebitis
Omphaloarteritis
Urachitis
Control
References
Neonatal Streptococcal Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence
Source of Infection
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Foals
Piglets
Lambs
Calves
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Neonatal Neoplasia
20 Diseases of the Mammary Gland
Introduction
Bovine Mastitis
General Features
Contagious Mastitis Pathogens
Teat Skin Opportunistic Mastitis Pathogens
Environmental Mastitis Pathogens
Etiology
Major Pathogens
Contagious Pathogens
Environmental Pathogens
Minor Pathogens
Uncommon Mastitis Pathogens
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Prevalence
Incidence
Relative Prevalence of Infection With Intramammary Pathogens
Contagious Pathogens
Teat Skin Opportunistic Pathogens
Environmental Pathogens
Heifers
Distribution of Pathogens in Clinical Mastitis
Source of Infection
Contagious Pathogens
Teat Skin Opportunistic Pathogens
Environmental Pathogens
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Age and Parity
Stage of Lactation
Season of Year
Somatic Cell Count
Breed
Milking Characteristics and Morphology of Udder and Teat
Physical Condition of Teat
Udder Hygiene
Nutritional Status
Genetic Resistance to Mastitis
Somatic Cell Count.
Milk Yield
Other Concurrent Diseases
Immunologic Function of Mammary Gland
Previous Mastitis
Preexisting Intramammary Infections
Use of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Quality and Management of Housing
Milking Practices
Pathogen Risk Factors
Viability of Pathogens
Virulence Factors
Colonizing Ability
Toxins
Production and Economic Losses
Subclinical Mastitis
Clinical Mastitis
Zoonotic Potential
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Abnormal Secretion
Abnormal Gland
Abnormal Cow Systemic Response
Further Reading
References
Diagnosis of Bovine Mastitis
Detection of Clinical Mastitis
Detection of Subclinical Mastitis
Detection at the Herd Level
Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Counts
Culture of Bulk Tank Milk
Detection at the Individual Cow Level
Culture of Individual Cow Milk
Indirect Tests for Subclinical Mastitis
The Somatic Cell Count of Composite or Quarter Samples
California Mastitis Test of Quarter Samples
NAGase Test of Composite or Quarter Samples
Electrical Conductivity Tests of Quarter Samples
Comparison of Indirect Methods
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Ultrasonography of the Mammary Gland
Infrared Thermography of the Mammary Gland
Biopsy of Mammary Tissue
Necropsy Findings
Further Reading
References
Treatment of Bovine Mastitis
Historical Aspects of Antimicrobial Therapy for Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis
Treatment Strategy
Is Antimicrobial Therapy Indicated?
Type of Pathogen Involved
Type and Severity of the Inflammatory Response
Duration of Infection
Stage of Lactation
Age and Pregnancy Status of Cow
Which Route of Administration Intramammary, Parenteral, or Both?
Which Antimicrobial Agent Should Be Administered?
What Should Be the Frequency and Duration of Treatment?
Intramammary Antimicrobial Therapy
Infusion Procedure
Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy
Treatment of Lactating Quarters
Emergency Treatment When the Type of Infection Is Unknown
Treatment When the Infecting Organism Is Known
Treatment of Subclinical Mastitis
Antiinflammatory Agents
Supportive Therapy
Adjunctive Therapy
Magnitude of Response to Therapy
Dry Cow Therapy
Prepartum Antimicrobial Therapy in Heifers
Treatment of Mastitis on Organic Dairy Farms
Antimicrobial Residues in Milk and Withholding Times
Antimicrobial Residue Tests
Permanently Drying Off Chronically Affected Quarters
Further Reading
References
Mastitis Pathogens of Cattle
Mastitis of Cattle Associated With Common Contagious Pathogens
Staphylococcus aureus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci
Source of Infection and Method of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Local Defense Mechanisms
Colonization With Minor Pathogens
Parity of Cow
Presence of Other Diseases
Heredity
Immune System
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Virulence Factors
Genotype of Strains
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Chronic Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis
Acute and Peracute Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis
Clinical Pathology
Culture of Individual Cow Milk
Culture of Bulk Tank Milk
Somatic Cell Counts and California Mastitis Test
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Antibody in Milk
Acriflavine Disk Assay
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Inadequate Penetration of Antimicrobial Agent
Antimicrobial Resistance
Lactating Cow Therapy
Peracute Mastitis
Dry Cow Therapy
Control
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Streptococcus agalactiae
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Source of Infection
Transmission of Infection
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture From Bulk Tank Milk Samples
Total Bacterial Count
Culture From Individual Cow Samples
Somatic Cell Count
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Blitz Therapy
Control
Vaccination
Biosecurity
Further Reading
References
Corynebacterium bovis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Treatment
Control
References
M. bovis and Other Mycoplasma sp.
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Source of Infection
Transmission
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Mastitis of Cattle Associated With Teat Skin Opportunistic Pathogens
Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Mastitis of Cattle Associated With Common Environmental Pathogens
Coliform Mastitis Associated With Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Enterobacter aerogenes
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence of Clinical Mastitis
Prevalence of Infection
Duration of Infection
Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Bedding
Animal Risk Factors
Somatic Cell Count
Neutrophil Recruitment and Function
Selenium and Vitamin E Status
Stage of Lactation and Defense Mechanism
Contamination of Teat Duct
Downer Cows
Other Defense Factors
Lactoferrin and Citrate.
Serum Antibody to E. coli.
Pathogenesis
Stage of Lactation
Neutrophil Response
Numbers of Bacteria in Milk
Experimental Endotoxin-Induced Mastitis
Clinical Findings
Accuracy of Clinical Diagnosis
Clinical Pathology
Culture of Milk
Somatic Cell Count and California Mastitis Test Scores
Hematology
Endotoxin Presence in Milk and Plasma
Serum Biochemistry
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Treatment Trials Using Antimicrobial Agents and Untreated Controls
Parenteral Antimicrobial Agents
Intramammary Antimicrobial Agents
Stripping of the Affected Quarter
Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
Antiinflammatory Agents
Combination Therapy
Control
Management of Outbreaks
Housing and Environment
Bedding
Regular Daily Cleaning of Barns
Milking Procedures
Premilking Teat Disinfection
Postmilking Barrier Teat Dips
Nutrition
Prevention of Infection During Dry Period
Recumbent Cows
Milking Machine
Vaccination
Core Lipopolysaccharide Antigen Vaccine
Further Reading
References
Environmental Streptococci
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Source of Infection
Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Treatment
Antimicrobial Agents
Control
Vaccination
References
Trueperella pyogenes
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence of Infection
Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Mastitis of Cattle Associated With Less Common Pathogens
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Mannheimia Pasteurella species
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Nocardia sp.
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection and Mode of Transmission
Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Bacillus sp.
Campylobacter jejuni
Clostridium perfringens type A
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Histophilus somni
Listeria monocytogenes
Mycobacterium sp.
Serratia sp.
Fungi and Yeasts
Algae
Traumatic Mastitis
References
Control of Bovine Mastitis
Udder Health Improvement
Economic Benefits, Incentives, and Penalties
Requirements
Options in the Control of Mastitis
Eradication
Decreasing the Infection Rate
Legislative Control
A Voluntary Program
Principles of Controlling Bovine Mastitis
Dynamics of Infection
1. Eliminate Existing Infections
2. Prevent New Infections
3. Monitor Udder Health Status
Mastitis Control Programs
Ten-Point Mastitis Control Program
1. Udder Hygiene and Proper Milking Methods
Establish and Maintain a Regular Milking Schedule in a Stress-Free Environment
Ensure That Teats Are Clean and Dry Before Milking
Udder Hygiene Score
Premilking Cow Preparation
Check Foremilk and Udder for Mastitis
Premilking Teat Disinfection
Attach the Milking Unit Properly
Minimize Machine Stripping and Avoid Liner Slips
Avoid Overmilking or Removing the Unit Under Vacuum
Use an Effective and Safe Postmilking Teat Germicide Teat Dip After Every Milking
Iodine Formulations
Chlorhexidine
Linear Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid Products
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Sodium Hypochlorite
External Teat Sealants Barrier Teat Dips
Selection and Use of Teat Disinfectants
Establish Milking Order and Segregation Programs
Disinfect Teat Liners
2. Proper Installation, Function, and Maintenance of Milking Equipment
Milking System Function and Objectives
Components of a Milking System
Vacuum System
Vacuum Pump
Vacuum Reserve Tank
Vacuum Regulator
Pulsation System
Milk Transport System
Milk Claw
Milk Pipeline
Bulk Milk Tank
Relationship of Milking Equipment to Udder Health
Maintenance and Evaluation of Milking Equipment
Robotic Milking
3. Dry Cow Management and Therapy
Epidemiology of Intramammary Infection During the Dry Period
Incidence of New Infections
Types of Pathogen Causing New Infections During the Dry Period
Risk Factors That Affect Susceptibility in Dry Cows
Teat-End Protection
Resistance Mechanisms Within the Mammary Gland
Milk Production at Dry Off
Method of Drying Off
Parity
Risk Factors That Affect Susceptibility in Heifers
Udder Health Management Strategies for Dry Cows
Antimicrobial Therapy Dry Cow Therapy
Blanket Versus Selective Dry Cow Therapy
Factors Affecting the Success of Antimicrobial Treatment of Dry Cows
Internal Teat Sealants
External Teat Sealants
Teat Disinfection
Intramammary Devices
Vaccination of the Dry Cow
Management of the Environment for Dry Cows
Nutritional Management of Dry Cows
4. Appropriate Therapy of Mastitis During Lactation
5. Culling Chronically Infected Cows
Biosecurity for Herd Replacements
Know the Farm of Origin
Know the Cows
Protect the Home Herd
6. Maintenance of an Appropriate Environment
Global Environmental Influences
Classification of Environmental Influences
External Environmental Influences on Mastitis Control
Regional Environment
Local Environment
Internal Environmental Influences on Mastitis Control
Housing
Nutritional Management
Management Approach
General Hygiene
Udder Singeing
Use of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin
Environmental Control in an Udder Health Management Program
7. Good Record Keeping
Objectives and Uses of Clinical Mastitis Records
Recording Clinical Mastitis Data
Using Clinical Mastitis Monitoring Systems
Cow Versus Herd Clinical Mastitis Problems
Probability of Recurrence of Clinical Mastitis in the Same Lactation
Stage of Lactation and Seasonal Profile
Days of Discarded Milk
8. Monitoring Udder Health Status
Monitoring Udder Health at the Herd Level
Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Counts
Herd Average of Weighted Individual Cow Somatic Cell Count
Other Herd-Level Somatic Cell Count Monitors
Herd Average Somatic Cell Score
Percentage of Herd Over Somatic Cell Count Threshold
Percentage of Herd Changing Somatic Cell Count to Over Threshold
Bacteriologic Culture of Bulk Milk
Herd-Level Measures of Clinical Mastitis
Monitoring Udder Health of Individual Cows
Bacteriologic Culture of Milk
Somatic Cell Counts
Problem Solving Using Individual Cow Somatic Cell Counts
9. Periodic Review of the Udder Health Management Program
10. Setting Goals for Udder Health Status
Relationship of Udder Health to Productivity and Profitability
Production Losses From Increased Somatic Cell Count
Clinical Mastitis and Lost Productivity
Assessment of the Cost-Effectiveness of Mastitis Control
Further Reading
References
Miscellaneous Abnormalities of the Teats and Udder
Lesions of the Bovine Teat
Reference
Lesions of the Bovine Teat and Udder
Bovine Herpes Mammillitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Animal and Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology and Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Lesions of the Bovine Udder Other Than Mastitis
Udder Impetigo
Udder Cleft Dermatitis
Blood in the Milk Mammary Gland Hematoma
Udder Edema
Rupture of the Suspensory Ligaments of the Udder
Agalactia
Milk Drop Syndrome
Low Milk Fat Syndrome
References
“Free? Or “Stray? Electricity as a Cause of Failure of Letdown
Neoplasms of the Udder
Teat and Udder Congenital Defects
Further Reading
References
Milk Allergy
Mastitis of Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Staphylococcal Mastitis
Mannheimia Mastitis
Streptococcal Mastitis
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Staphylococcal Mastitis
Mannheimia Mastitis
Clostridial Mastitis
Caseous Lymphadenitis and Mastitis
Pseudomonal Mastitis
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Staphylococcal Mastitis
Mannheimia Mastitis
Further Reading
References
Mastitis of Goats
Staphylococcal Mastitis
Streptococcal Mastitis
Pseudomonas Mastitis
Summer Mastitis
Other Infections
Clinical Findings
Treatment and Control
References
Contagious Agalactia in Goats and Sheep
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence
Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Mastitis of Mares
References
Postpartum Dysgalactia Syndrome of Sows
Etiology
Mastitis
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Risk Factors
Feed
Housing
Management
Animal Factors
Microorganisms
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Examination of Milk
Hematology and Serum Biochemistry
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Supplementation of Piglets
Control
Further Reading
References
21 Systemic and Multi-Organ Diseases
Diseases of Complex or Undetermined Etiology
Cold Cow Syndrome
Recumbency in horses of undetermined etiology
Epidemiology
Examination of the Recumbent Horse
History
Physical Examination
Management and Care
Complications?Prevention
Further Reading
References
Thin Sow Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Control
Feeding During Pregnancy
Feeding During Lactation
Wild Boar as Vectors for Infectious Disease
Risk Factors
Disease in General
African Swine Fever
Astroviruses
Aujesky’s Disease
Brucellosis
Campylobacter Spp.
Chlamydiae
Classical Swine Fever
Cryptosporidia
Escherichia Coli
Erysipelas
Fasciola Hepatica
Foot-and-Mouth Disease
Hepatitis E
Leptospira Spp.
Lymphadenitis
Mycobacterium Bovis
Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae
Parasites
Porcine Circovirus Type 2
Porcine Parvovirus
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Porcine Sapelovirus
Salmonella Serotypes
Swine Influenza
Toxoplasma
Trichinella
Control
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Bacterial Infection
Anthrax
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of the Infection
Transmission of the Infection
Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environment Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Potential
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle and Sheep
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Immunization
Further Reading
References
Bovine Tuberculosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Cattle
Wildlife Reservoirs
Methods of Transmission
Ingestion
Other Routes
Risk Factors
Environment Risk Factors
Host Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Lungs
Intestine
Uterus
Mastitis
Pigs
Horses
Sheep and Goats
New World Camelids
Clinical Pathology
Direct Tests
Microscopic Examination
Culture
Nucleic Acid Recognition Methods
Indirect Tests
Intradermal Tuberculin Test
Special Aspects of Sensitivity to Tuberculin
Summary of Testing Procedures in Cattle
Tuberculin Testing in Other Species
Pigs
Horses
Sheep and Goats
New World Camelids
Interferon-γ Assay
Lymphocyte Proliferation Test
Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
Necropsy Findings
Cattle, Sheep, and Goats
Pigs
Horses
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Control on a Herd Basis
Tuberculin Testing
Retesting
Prevention of Spread
Control on an Area Basis
Education
Staging
Vaccination
Test and Slaughter
Problems in Tuberculosis Eradication
No-Visible-Lesion Reactors
“Breakdowns?
“Traceback?
Large Herds
Wildlife Reservoirs
Control of Tuberculosis in Pigs
Further Reading
References
Tuberculosis Associated With Mycobacterium tuberculosis
References
Mycobacteriosis Associated With Mycobacterium avium intracellulare Complex and With Atypical Mycobacteria
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source and Transmission
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Importance
Clinical and Necropsy Findings
Cattle
Goats and Sheep
Deer
Horses
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Tuberculin Testing
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Yersiniosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Zoonotic Implications
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Yersinia enterocolitica
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Tularemia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogen Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Melioidosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Source and Methods of Transmission
Pathogen Risk Factors
Experimental Production
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Goats
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy
Diagnostic Confirmation
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Heartwater COWDRIOSIS
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Measures of Disease Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Risk Factors and Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Histophilus Septicemia of Cattle Histophilus somni or Haemophilus somnus Disease Complex
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevalence of Infection
Occurrence of Disease
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Adherence.
Lipooligosaccharides LOS or Endotoxin.
Antigen Variation of Surface Proteins.
Immunoglobulin-Binding Proteins.
Transferrin-Binding Proteins.
Biofilm Synthesis.
Methods of Transmission
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis TME
Respiratory Disease
Myocarditis
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Culture of Organism
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Metaphylactic Antimicrobial Therapy
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Septicemia and Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis in Sheep Associated With Histophilus Somni
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Tick Pyemia of Lambs Enzootic Staphylococcosis of Lambs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical and Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
Reference
Septicemic Pasteurellosis of Cattle Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture and Detection of Bacteria
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Antimicrobial Metaphylaxis
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Pasteurellosis of Sheep and Goats
Septicemic Pasteurellosis of Suckling Lambs
Mannheimia mastitis in sheep
Pneumonic Pasteurellosis Affecting Wildlife
References
Pasteurellosis of Swine
Pneumonic Pasteurellosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Septicemic Pasteurellosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
References
Streptococcus suis Infection of Young Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Capsules
Proteins
Suilysin
Hemolysin
Other Properties
Adhesion
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Culture or Detection of Organism
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobials
Control
Environment and Management
Mass Medication of Feed
Vaccination
References
Streptococcal Lymphadenitis of Swine Jowl Abscesses, Cervical Abscesses
Erysipelas in Swine
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence of Infection
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Hyperacute Form
Acute and Subacute Forms
Chronic Form
Clinical Pathology
Detection of Organism
Hematology
Serology
Necropsy Findings
Acute and Subacute Forms
Chronic Form
Diagnosis
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Antimicrobial Therapy
Control
Eradication
Immunization
Antierysipelas Serum
Vaccination
Vaccination Program
References
Actinobacillus Septicemia in Piglets
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
References
Klebsiella Pneumoniae Septicemia in Pigs
Chlamydial Infection in the Pig
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Viral Infection
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Aphthous Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence
Morbidity and Case-Fatality Rate
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Host Factors
Environmental and Pathogen Factors
Immune Mechanism
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Control by Eradication
Vaccination
Further Reading
References
Rift Valley Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Source of Infection
Method of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Zoonotic Implications
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Bluetongue
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Host Occurrence
Method of Transmission
Culicoides Species
Other Vectors
Overwintering
Transplacental Infection
Persistent Infection
Venereal Transmission
Oral Transmission
Pathogen and Vector Risk Factors
Climate
Serotype Occurrence
Host Risk Factors
Cattle
Sheep
Goats and Wild Ruminants
New World Camelids
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Sheep
Cattle and Wild Ruminants
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Cattle
Goats
New World Camelids
Wild Ruminants
Clinical Pathology
Virus Isolation
Detection of Antigen or Nucleic Acid
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Sheep
Cattle
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Reduction of Infection Through Vector Abatement
Vaccination
International Movement of Livestock
Further Reading
References
Malignant Catarrhal Fever Bovine Malignant Catarrh, Malignant Head Catarrh
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Prevalence
Alcelaphine MCF
Sheep-Associated MCF
Methods of Transmission
Alcelaphine MCF
Sheep-Associated MCF
Experimental Reproduction
Environment Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Head-and-Eye Form
Peracute and Alimentary Tract Forms
Mild Form
Pigs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Malignant Catarrh in Pigs
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Pathology
Diagnosis
References
Jembrana Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
Bovine Ephemeral Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Method of Transmission
Experimental Reproduction
Environment Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Nairobi Sheep Disease
Further Reading
References
Wesselsbron Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Source of Infection and Method of Transmission
Zoonotic Implications
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Caprine Herpesvirus-1 Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Transmission and Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Adults
Newborn Kids
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Adults
Newborn Kids
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
References
Equine Viral Arteritis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Origin of Infection and Transmission
Horizontal Transmission
Venereal Transmission
Immunity
Animal Risk Factors
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment and Control
Further Reading
References
African Horse Sickness
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
South Africa
Transmission of Infection
Zebra
Midges
Risk Factors
Environment Factors
Animal Factors
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Disease
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Pulmonary Horse Sickness Dunkop
Subacute Cardiac Horse Sickness Dikkop
Horse Sickness Fever
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Prevention of Introduction
Slaughter of Sick or Viremic Animals
Reduce Exposure to Biting Midges
Vaccination
References
Equine Encephalosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
References
Getah Virus Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
References
Classical Swine Fever Hog Cholera
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Virulence Characteristics
Resistance of Virus
Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Diagnosis
Peracute and Acute Disease
Nervous Manifestations
Chronic Disease
Reproductive Failure
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Diagnostic Tests
Detection of Virus
Fluorescent Antibody Techniques
Antigen-Capture ELISA
Agar Gel Precipitation Test
Differentiation of Swine Fever Virus From Other Pestiviruses
PCR Tests
Serologic Tests
Samples for Laboratory
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Detection of Antigen
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Serology
Treatment
Control
Control of Outbreaks in Hog Cholera?Free Areas
Control Where Hog Cholera Is Endemic
Hog Cholera Eradication
Immunization Methods
Serum?Virus Vaccination
Attenuated Vaccines
Inactivated Vaccines
Further Reading
References
African Swine Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Geographic Occurrence
Africa
Europe
The Recent Disease Outbreak
Species Affected
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Pathogen Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Hematology
Diagnosis
Detection of the Virus
Serologic Tests
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Serology
Treatment
Control
Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Porcine Circovirus?Associated Disease
Etiology
Genome Studies
Transcription
Embryo Infectivity
Virus Import
Replication
Genotypes
Epidemiology
Wild Boar
Prevalence
Environmental Survival
Transmission
Horizontal Transmission
Vertical Transmission
Risk Factors
Occurrence
Breeding
Concurrent Infections
Pathogenesis
Host?Virus Interactions
Cytokine Studies
Interferons
Immunity
Necropsy Findings
Gross Pathology
Fetal Pathology
Pathology in Piglets and Pigs
Histopathology
Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome
Ultrastructural Changes
Clinical Signs
Clinical Pathology
Diagnosis
Serology
Diagnosis in Boars
Virus Detection
Detection of Viral Antigen by Immunohistochemistry
Oral Fluids
Control
Vaccination
The Vaccines
Vaccine Effects
Sow Compared with Piglet Vaccination
Sow Vaccination
Semen Shedding in Boars
Piglet Vaccination
Maternally Derived Antibodies
Experimental Vaccines
Vectored Vaccines
Further Reading
References
Torque Teno Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Diagnosis
Further Reading
References
Nipah
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
References
Tioman Virus
Reference
Porcine Retroviruses
Further Reading
References
Menangle
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Japanese B Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Diagnosis
Control
Further Reading
Reston Virus
Reference
Bungowannah Virus
Porcine Parvovirus
Novel Porcine Parvoviruses
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Protozoal Infection
Sarcocystosis Sarcosporidiosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Risk Factors
Climate
Species of Sarcocystis
Farm Dogs
Cats
Stocking Density
Economic Importance
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Sheep
Swine
Abortion and Perinatal Fatality
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxoplasmosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Source of Infection
Cat Feces
Other Sources
Risk Factors
Pathogen Risk Factors
Environmental and Management Risk Factors
Experimental Studies
Sheep
Cattle
Other Ruminants
Pigs
Horses
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Pathogenesis
Pregnant Sheep and Goats
Clinical Findings
Sheep
Goats
Pigs
Cattle
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Abortion
Necropsy Findings
Abortion
Samples for Diagnostic Testing
Treatment
Control
Cat Control
Serologic Monitoring
Prophylaxis
Vaccination
Reduction of Zoonotic Risk From Food and Water
Further Reading
References
Theilerioses
References
East Coast Fever ECF
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors
Environmental Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Tropical Theileriosis Mediterranean Coast Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence and Methods of Transmission
Risk Factors and Immune Mechanisms
Economic Importance
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Trypanosome Infection
Nagana Samore, African Trypanosomaisis, Tsetse Fly Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Prevalence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Methods of Transmission
Cyclical
Noncyclical
The Carrier State
Risk Factors
Host Factors
Environmental Factors
Pathogen Factors
Immune Mechanisms
Experimental Reproduction
Economic Importance
Zoonotic Implications
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Gross Pathology
Histology
Specimens for Pathology
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Surra Mal de Caderas, Murrina
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Morbidity and Case Fatality
Method of Transmission
Immune Mechanisms
Zoonotic Implications
Economic Importance
Biosecurity Concerns
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Fungal Infection
Protothecosis and Chlorellosis Algal Bacteremia
References
Coccidioidomycosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
References
Paracoccidioidomycosis Paracoccidioides Infection
References
Rhodotorulua spp. Infection
References
Histoplasmosis
References
Cryptococcosis European Blastomycosis, Torulosis
References
North American Blastomycosis
Further Reading
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Metabolic Deficiency
Sodium and/or Chloride Deficiency
Magnesium Deficiency
Further Reading
References
Copper Deficiency
Etiology
Primary Copper Deficiency
Secondary Copper Deficiency
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Geographic Distribution
Primary Copper Deficiency
Secondary Copper Deficiency
Seasonal Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Age
Breed and Species Susceptibility
Fetal Liver Copper
Dietary Factors
Pasture Composition
Molybdenum and Sulfur
Copper in the Diet
Dietary Iron
Stored Feeds
Soil Characteristics
Copper Deficiency.
Molybdenum Excess.
Pathogenesis
Effects on Tissues
Changes in Gene Expression
Wool
Body Weight
Diarrhea
Anemia
Bone
Connective Tissue
Heart
Blood Vessels
Pancreas
Nervous Tissue
Reproductive Performance
Immune System
Development of Clinical Signs
Copper?Molybdenum? Sulfate Relationship
Copper Utilization
Hepatic Storage
Phases of Copper Deficiency
Clinical Findings
Cattle
Subclinical Hypocuprosis
General Syndrome
Primary Copper Deficiency
Secondary Copper Deficiency
Falling Disease
Peat Scours “Teart?
Unthriftiness Pine of Calves
Sheep
General Syndrome
Primary Copper Deficiency
Swayback and Enzootic Ataxia in Lambs and Goat Kids
Goats
Other Species
Deer
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Herd Diagnosis.
Treatment Response Trial.
Copper Status of Herd or Flock.
Laboratory Diagnosis
Interpretation of Laboratory Results
Cattle and Sheep
Horses
Farmed Red Deer Cervus Elaphus
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Dietary Requirements
Copper Toxicity
Copper Supplementation
Oral Dosing
Dietary Supplementation
Removal of Sulfates
Parenteral Injections of Copper
Slow-Release Treatments
Glass Bolus
Copper Oxide Needles
Sheep
Cattle
Farmed Red Deer
Genetic Selection
Summary and Guidelines
Further Reading
References
Riboflavin Deficiency Hyporiboflavinosis
Choline Deficiency Hypocholinosis
References
Multi-Organ Diseases Due to Toxicity
Snakebite
Etiology
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Bee and Wasp Stings Hymenoptera
Further Reading
Reference
Red Fire Ant Stings Solenopsis invicta
Further Reading
References
Moths
Sweating Sickness Tick Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
Reference
4-Aminopyridine Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Cadmium Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Chromium Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Cobalt Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Primary Copper Toxicosis
Etiology
Causes of Acute Oral Poisoning
Causes of Acute Injectable Poisoning
Causes of Chronic Oral Poisoning
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Sheep
Calves Preruminant
Cattle
Goats
Horses
Swine
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Species Susceptibility
Breed Susceptibility
Sheep.
Cattle.
Environmental Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Intoxication
Chronic Intoxication
Clinical Pathology
Acute Ingestion
Chronic Ingestion
Necropsy Findings
Acute Intoxication
Chronic Intoxication
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis From Dried Poultry Wastes
Toxicosis from Defoliants
Further Reading
Toxicosis from Fungicides
Fungistatic Agents
Grain Fumigants
Further Reading
Reference
Toxicosis from Herbicides
Bipyridyl Derivatives
Carbamates, Thiocarbamates, Dithiocarbamates
Dinitrophenol Compounds
Inorganic Herbicides
Sodium Chlorate
Organophosphorus Compounds
Phenoxy Acid Derivatives
Triazines/Triazoles
Ureas/Thioureas
Others
Triclopyr
Delrad
Further Reading
References
Hydrocarbon Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings Oil Ingestions
Natural Cases
Experimental Cases
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Further Reading
Reference
Iron Toxicosis
Neonatal Pigs
Foals/Horses
Cattle
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis From Feed Additives
Bronopol
Carbadox
Pluronics
Tin Poisoning
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis from Miscellaneous Farm Chemicals
Formalin
Methyl Bromide
Polybrominated Biphenyls
Clinical Signs
Cattle
Pigs
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Sodium Fluorosilicate
Superphosphate Fertilizers
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis from Seed Dressings
Toxicosis from Miscellaneous Rodenticides
Bromethalin
Cholecalciferol Vitamin D3
Red Squill Sea Onion
Phosphides
Further Reading
References
Sulfur Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Ruminants
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Vanadium Toxicosis
Further Reading
Reference
Toxicosis from Wood Preservatives
Chromated Copper Arsenate
Pentachlorophenol
Creosote Coal Tar Creosote
Further Reading
References
Zinc Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Farm Risk Factors
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Acute Poisoning
Cattle
Pigs
Chronic Poisoning
Dairy Cattle
Pigs
Horses
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Samples for Confirmation of Diagnosis
Tissue Assay
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Diterpenoid Alkaloid Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Ergot Alkaloid Toxicosis
Ergotism
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Peripheral Gangrene Classical Ergotism
Hyperthermia Form
Reproductive Form
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Neotyphodium Acremonium spp. Toxicosis
Fescue Toxicosis
Clinical Findings
Fescue Summer Toxicosis Summer Slump, Epidemic Hyperthermia
Fescue Foot
Fat Necrosis Lipomatosis
Reproductive Abnormalities in Mares
Control
Further Reading
References
Fumonisin Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Environmental Risk Factors
Pathogenesis
Equine Toxicosis
Equine Leukoencephalomalacia Moldy Corn Disease
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Swine Toxicosis
Porcine Pulmonary Edema
Clinical Signs
Necropsy Findings
Hepatosis/Hepatic Effects
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Ruminant Toxicosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Glucosinolate Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Risk Factors
Human Risk Factors
Plant Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Goiter
Enteritis
Acute Pulmonary Emphysema and Interstitial Pneumonia
Polioencephalomalacia Rape Blindness
Other Unrelated Diseases
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Miscellaneous Mycotoxins
Cyclopiazonic Acid
Patulin
Sterigmatocystin
Further Reading
References
Mushroom Toxicosis
Amatoxins
Ramaria Flavo-Brunnescens
Scleroderma Citrinum
Cortinarius Speciocissimus
Inocybe and Clitocybe spp.
Further Reading
References
Phalaris spp. Canary Grass Toxicosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Occurrence
Risk Factors
Animal Factors
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Treatment
Control
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis from Plant Phenols Gossypol and Tannins
Gossypol
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Findings
Clinical Pathology
Necropsy Findings
Control
Tannins
Oak Quercus spp.
Yellow-Wood Tree Terminalia Oblongata spp.
Further Reading
References
Miscellaneous Plant Toxicosis
Aesculin
Alcohol Complex Plant
Aliphatic Acetogenin Monoglyceride
Amine Toxicity
Amino Acid Toxicity
Indospicine/Canavanine
Mimosine
Aristolochine
Crepenynic Acid
Cycad Glycosides
Grayanotoxins
Isoquinoline Alkaloids
Juniperine
Rhoeadine
Saponin Poisoning
Triterpene Saponins
Steroidal Saponins
Sesquiterpenes
Furanoid Sesquiterpenes Furanosesquiterpenoid Poisoning
Ipomeanol
Sesquiterpene Lactones
Vomiting Syndrome
Encephalomalacia Syndrome
Selenocompounds
Steroidal Alkaloids Solanum spp.
Vellein
Veratrine
Zigadine Zigadenine
Further Reading
References
Toxicosis From Brewer’s Residues
Trichothecene Toxicosis
Macrocyclic Trichothecenes
Stachybotryotoxicosis
Myrotheciotoxicosis
Nonmacrocyclic Trichothecenes
T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin
Deoxynivalenol
Fusaritoxicosis Syndromes Without Specified Toxins
Further Reading
References
Triterpene Plant Toxicosis
Further Reading
References
Appendix 1 Conversion Tables
Conversion Factors for Old and SI Units
Conversions
Temperature
Mass
Capacity
Length
Metric
US/Imperial
Pressure
Appendix 2 Reference Laboratory Values
Hematology
Hematology International units, SI
Serum constituents U.S. units
Serum constituents International units, SI
Appendix 3 Drug doses and intervals for horses and ruminants
Appendix 4 Drug doses and intervals for pigs
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
How to Use This Book
For Example
Guidelines for Selection and Submission of Necropsy Specimens for Confirmation of Diagnosis




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