Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition and Metabolism

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توضیحاتی در مورد کتاب Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition and Metabolism

نام کتاب : Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition and Metabolism
ویرایش : 1
عنوان ترجمه شده به فارسی : پیشرفت های اخیر در تغذیه و متابولیسم حیوانات
سری : Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
نویسندگان :
ناشر : Springer
سال نشر : 2021
تعداد صفحات : 344
ISBN (شابک) : 3030856852 , 9783030856854
زبان کتاب : English
فرمت کتاب : pdf
حجم کتاب : 8 مگابایت

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فهرست مطالب :

1 Nutrition and Metabolism: Foundations for Animal Growth, Development, Reproduction, and Health
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Production of High-Quality Food Protein and Fiber (Wool) by Animal Agriculture for Human Consumption, Health and Well-Being
1.3 Animals as Models for Biomedical Research and as Bioreactors for Producing Therapeutic Proteins
1.4 Nutritional Requirements, Deficiencies, and Health of Animals
1.5 Protein Foodstuff Sources for Animals
1.6 Conclusion
2 Insights into the Regulation of Implantation and Placentation in Humans, Rodents, Sheep, and Pigs
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fertilization and Embryonic Development to the Blastocyst Stage in Mammals
2.3 Pre-Implantation Conceptus Development in Humans, Sheep, Pigs, and Rodents
2.3.1 Pregnancy Recognition Signaling
2.3.2 Pregnancy Recognition Signaling in Humans
2.3.3 Pregnancy Recognition Signaling in Rodents
2.3.4 Pregnancy Recognition Signaling in Sheep
2.3.5 Pregnancy Recognition Signaling in Pigs
2.4 Implantation of Blastocysts in Humans, Sheep, Pigs, and Rodents
2.4.1 Implantation of Blastocysts in Mammals
2.4.2 Implantation in Humans
2.4.3 Implantation in Rodents
2.4.4 Implantation in Sheep
2.4.5 Implantation in Pigs
2.5 Overview of Placentation/Placental Growth and Function in Humans, Sheep, Pigs, and Rodents
2.5.1 Placentation in Humans
2.5.2 Placentation in Rodents
2.5.3 Placentation in Sheep
2.5.4 Placentation in Pigs
2.6 Summary and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
3 A Role for Fructose Metabolism in Development of Sheep and Pig Conceptuses
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Conceptus Development in Sheep
3.2.1 Sheep
3.2.2 Pigs
3.3 Glucose and Fructose Profiles During Pregnancy in Sheep and PIGS
3.4 Metabolism of Glucose and Fructose: Pathways of Interest for Development of the Conceptus
3.5 Similarities in Metabolism Between Conceptuses and Tumors
3.6 Summary
Conflicts of Interest
4 Nutritional Regulation of Embryonic Survival, Growth, and Development
4.1 Developmental Programming
4.2 Importance of the Periconceptual Period
4.3 Underlying Mechanisms
4.3.1 Programming of the Placenta
4.3.2 Programming of the Fetus and Fetal Organ Systems
4.3.3 Common Mechanisms?
4.4 Summary and Future Directions
5 Phosphate, Calcium, and Vitamin D: Key Regulators of Fetal and Placental Development in Mammals
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Roles of Phosphate, Calcium, and Vitamin D Postnatally in Bone and Kidney
5.2.1 Phosphate
5.2.2 Calcium
5.3 Animal Models for the Study of Placental Mineral Transport (see Enders and Carter 2004; Carter 2007; Barry and Anthony 2008; Grigsby 2016)
5.4 Maternal Mineral Adaptations
5.5 Gestational Changes in Phosphate and Calcium in Fetal Fluids
5.6 Impact of Maternal Calcium and Vitamin D Deficiencies on Fetal Development and Pregnancy Outcomes
5.7 Regulators of Placental Calcium and Phosphate Transport
5.7.1 PTH and PTHrP
5.7.2 Calcitrol
5.7.3 Phosphatonins
5.7.4 Calcium-Binding Proteins
5.7.5 Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel (TRPV) Family
5.7.6 Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporters
5.7.7 Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPases
5.7.8 Stanniocalcin
5.7.9 Sex Steroids
5.8 Summary and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
6 Nutritional and Physiological Regulation of Water Transport in the Conceptus
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Water Transport and Expression of AQPs in the Conceptus During Pregnancy
6.2.1 Blastocyst Formation and Implantation
6.2.2 Early and Late Pregnancy
6.2.3 Development of Fetal Organs
6.3 Nutritional Regulation of Water Transport in the Conceptus
6.3.1 Dietary Protein
6.3.2 Amino Acids
6.3.3 High-Fat Diet
6.3.4 Vitamins
6.3.5 Minerals
6.4 Physiological Regulation of Water Transport in the Conceptus
6.4.1 Hormones Estradiol (E2) Progesterone (P4) Insulin Leptin Relaxin Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
6.4.2 Oxygen Supply
6.4.3 pH
6.4.4 Osmotic Pressure
6.4.5 Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)
6.5 Summary
7 Amino Acids in Microbial Metabolism and Function
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Contribution of AA Metabolism in Intestinal Bacteria to Host Nutrition
7.3 Bacterial AA Metabolism and Survival in the Digestive Tract
7.3.1 AA Metabolism and Acid Resistance
7.3.2 AA Metabolism in Bacterial Adaptation to Conditions in the Large Intestine
7.3.3 AA Metabolism and Bile Resistance
7.3.4 AA Metabolism in Inter-Species Crosstalk
7.4 Regulation of Microbial Metabolism by AAs
7.5 AA-Derived or Induced Microbial Metabolites in Health
7.5.1 Aromatic AA Metabolites and Signaling in Health
7.5.2 Glutamate Metabolites
7.6 AA Metabolism in the Virulence of Pathogens
7.6.1 Glutamate and Proline Metabolism in Virulence
7.6.2 Arginine Metabolism and Cell Signaling in Virulence
7.6.3 Tryptophan Metabolism in Virulence
7.7 Conclusions and Perspectives
8 Potential Replacements for Antibiotic Growth Promoters in Poultry: Interactions at the Gut Level and Their Impact on Host Immunity
8.1 Introduction
8.2 What is Intestinal Health
8.3 Intestinal Immune Response
8.4 Components of a Healthy Intestinal System
8.5 Dysregulation of Gut Functionality
8.6 Feed Additives to Improve Gut Health
8.6.1 Probiotics
8.6.2 Prebiotics
8.6.3 Symbiotics and Postbiotics
8.6.4 Butyrate
8.6.5 Exogenous Feed Enzymes Carbohydrases Proteases Phytases
8.6.6 Phytobiotics
8.7 Importance of Understanding the Mode-of-Action
8.8 Future Trends and Conclusions
9 Microbiomes in the Intestine of Developing Pigs: Implications for Nutrition and Health
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Microbiome Structure and Succession
9.2.1 Longitudinal and Temporal Distribution of Piglet’s Gut Microbiota
9.2.2 Hydrogen-Utilizing Microbes
9.2.3 Non-Bacterial Components-Phages and Virome
9.3 Suckling Period as a Key Window for Microbial Colonization and Manipulation
9.3.1 Milk Glycans and Microbial Utilization
9.3.2 Milk-Related Substrates as Dietary Additives for Suckling Piglets
9.3.3 Fiber Inclusion for Suckling Piglets
9.3.4 Microbiota Manipulation Affects Host Health During Suckling Period
9.4 Post-weaning Microbiome: A Functionally Diverse Community
9.5 Amino Acid Metabolism
9.5.1 Microbiome Affects Amino Acid Utilization in Vitro and in Vivo
9.5.2 Gut Microbiome and Amino Acid Nutrition
9.5.3 Microbial Metabolism of Amino Acids: Effects Beyond Gut
9.6 Utilization of Oligosaccharides
9.7 Fibers
9.7.1 Fiber Fermentation by Gut Microbiome
9.7.2 Gut Microbiome Relates to Fiber Digestibility
9.8 Bile Acid Metabolism
9.8.1 Bile Acid Pool
9.8.2 Bile Salt Hydrolases in Gut Microbiome
9.8.3 Bile Acid Dihydroxylation by Gut Microbiome and Health Relevance
9.9 Conclusion
10 L-Arginine Nutrition and Metabolism in Ruminants
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Arginine Metabolism in Ruminants
10.2.1 Arginine Synthesis in Ruminants Arginine Synthesis in Cattle Arginine Synthesis in Sheep Concentrations of Arg and Related AAs in the Plasma and Conceptuses of Ruminants
10.2.2 Arginine Catabolism in Ruminants Catabolism of Arg in the Mammary Tissue of Ruminants Arginine Metabolites in the Ruminant Conceptus Catabolism of Arg and Cit by Ruminal Microbes Creatine Synthesis
10.3 Arginine Nutrition in Ruminants
10.3.1 Arginine Supplementation to Preruminants
10.3.2 Arg Nutrition in Growing/Finishing Ruminants
10.3.3 Studies with Nonpregnant Cattle and Sheep
10.3.4 Arg Nutrition in Gestating Ruminants Studies with Gestating Sheep Studies with Gestating Cattle
10.3.5 Arg Nutrition in Lactating Ruminants
10.4 Safety of Arg Supplementation in Ruminants
10.4.1 Safety of Arg Supplementation in Sheep
10.4.2 Safety of Arg Supplementation in Cattle
10.5 Summary and Perspectives
11 Hepatic Glucose Metabolism and Its Disorders in Fish
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Structure of the Liver in Fish
11.3 Pathophysiology of Liver Metabolic Disease
11.4 Digestion and Metabolism of Dietary Carbohydrates
11.4.1 The Digestion of Dietary Starch and the Absorption of Glucose into the Portal Vein
11.4.2 Blood Glucose Concentrations
11.4.3 Glucose Metabolism Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Pentose Cycle) Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis Lipogenesis from Glucose
11.5 Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Fibrosis
11.6 Treatment and Prevention of GH and Hepatic Steatosis in Fish
11.7 Concerns Over GH and Hepatic Steatosis in Fish
11.8 Conclusions and Perspectives
12 Protein-Sourced Feedstuffs for Aquatic Animals in Nutrition Research and Aquaculture
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Basic Concepts in the AA Nutrition of Aquatic Animals
12.2.1 Definitions of Nutritionally Essential and Nonessential AAs, and Functional AAs
12.2.2 High Requirements of Fish for Dietary Protein
12.3 Functional Amino Acids
12.4 Hybrid-Striped Bass
12.5 Largemouth Bass
12.6 Aquaculture for the Provision of Food with High-Quality Protein
12.7 Replacement of Fishmeal with Alternative Protein Sources
12.7.1 Fishmeal
12.7.2 Alternative Protein Sources to Replace Fishmeal Plant Protein Sources Animal By-Products Microbial Sources of Protein Feedstuffs
12.8 Culturing of Fish for Nutrition Research
12.9 Summary
13 Functional Molecules of Intestinal Mucosal Products and Peptones in Animal Nutrition and Health
13.1 Introduction
13.2 The Mucosa of the Small Intestine
13.3 Functions of Molecules Present in the Mucosa of the Small Intestine
13.3.1 Provision of High-Quality Protein and Functional Amino Acids
13.3.2 Provision of Factors for Regulation of Food Intake
13.3.3 Provision of Factors for the Stimulation of Nutrient Absorption
13.3.4 Provision of Growth Factors and Enhancers
13.3.5 Provision of Natural Antimicrobial Agents
13.3.6 Provision of Antioxidants and Their Precursors
13.3.7 Provision of Factors for Supporting Immune Function
13.3.8 Provision of Factors for Supporting Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Function
13.4 Inclusion Levels of Intestinal Mucosal Products and Peptones
13.5 Conclusion
14 Use of Genome Editing Techniques to Produce Transgenic Farm Animals
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Conventional Production of Recombinant Proteins
14.3 Difficulty in Establishing the Transgenic Animal Bioreactor Through Conventional Approaches
14.4 Application of Genome Editing Systems
14.5 Examples of Transgenic Animal Bioreactors
14.6 Production of Humanized Antibodies Through Transgenic Animal Bioreactors
14.7 Conclusions
15 Cows as Bioreactors for the Production of Nutritionally and Biomedically Significant Proteins
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Driving Recombinant Protein Expression in Cattle
15.3 Methods for Generating Transgenic Cattle
15.3.1 Pronuclear Microinjection
15.3.2 Sperm-Mediated Transgenesis
15.3.3 Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (Cloning)
15.4 Biotechnological Applications of Transgenic Cattle
15.4.1 Transgenic Cattle: Modification of the Nutritional Composition of Bovine Milk and Meat
15.4.2 Transgenic Cattle for Disease Resistance to Improve Animal Health and Increase Food Safety of Milk and Meat
15.4.3 Transgenic Cattle as Bioreactors to Produce Biopharmaceuticals
15.5 Conclusions
16 Use of Agriculturally Important Animals as Models in Biomedical Research
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Fetal Programming and Metabolism
16.2.1 Glucose Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity
16.2.2 Leptin
16.2.3 Lipid Metabolism
16.2.4 Maternal Obesity
16.3 Nutrition
16.4 Reproduction
16.5 Muscle
16.6 Disease
16.7 Conclusion
17 Pigs (Sus Scrofa) in Biomedical Research
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Characteristics of Pigs that Make Them a Model for Biomedical Research
17.3 Why Animal/Pig Model Research?
17.4 The Gut Microbiome in Obesity Research
17.5 Pigs in Toxicology and Organ Transplantation Applications
17.6 Pigs in Medical Instruction and Translational Research

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